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YOVR 
WORTH 
LI/4A 
MPHO/VY 





NORTH CAROLINA 
SYMPHONY 

Teacher Handbook 
2001-2002 

Table of Contents 

Preface ii 

Orchestral Suite # 1 in C Major 
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) 

Information and activities by Maggie Wright 1 

Symphony # 103 in E-flat, Drumroll, Movement 4, Finale 
Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) 

Information and activities by Susan Trivette 21 

Overture to Nabucco 
Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901) 

Information and activities by JoAnne Swartz 43 

Variations on America 

Charles Ives (1874-1954), arranged by William Schuman 

Information and activities by Jennifer Starkey 59 

Songs: 

America 77 

Va pensiero 78 

The North Carolina Symphony Teacher Handbook © 2001 by the North Carolina Symphony Society, Inc. 
Reproduction of this book in its entirety is strictly forbidden. Permission is given to duplicate charts, diagrams, scores, 
puzzles, etc. for classroom use only. 

These concerts are made possible by a grant-in-aid from the State of North Carolina. This program is supported in 
part by a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts. We gratefully acknowledge GlaxoSmithKline, which has 
made a generous grant to fund conductors for music education concerts and Progress Energy for its grant in support of 
the Symphony's statewide education mission. We would like to acknowledge Mrs. Maxine Swalin and Jackson 
Parkhurst for their many contributions to the Symphony's education programs. 

The North Carolina Symphony 
Suzanne Rousso, Director of Education 

2 East South Street 

Raleigh, NC 27601 

919-733-2750 x235 

srousso@ncsymphonv.org 



www.ncsymphony.org 



N A T I O N A L 
ENDOWMEN T 
FOR THE ARTS 



PREFACE 

Can vou believe it's 2001? 

This school year, the North Carolina Symphony will present you and your students with 
four works, one each from the baroque, classical, romantic and 20 th century eras. This is 
the first time we have ever played a work of Giuseppe Verdi for an education concert, 
appropriate because 2001 is the 100* anniversary of Verdi's death. The students will 
learn to sing a song, "Va pensiero " from the opera Nabucco. Aside from being a 
beautiful song, it has great historical significance, because it was adapted in Verdi's 
lifetime as a song representing the quest for Italian unification and independence from the 
Austrian Empire. This song will be a challenge to teach; the translation is a little wordy 
and the tune tricky because of the octave leaps. I believe, though, that the benefits will 
outweigh the difficulties and your students will actually learn to sing Italian Opera! 
Please note that the original version is in F-Sharp Major, I have transposed it down to F 
Major for ease of learning. The symphony will perform it in F-Sharp, it shouldn't make 
too much of a difference unless you have perfect pitch. (Sorry to those of you who do.) 

Since the Verdi may be a challenge, the other song is one we all know, America. I have 
opted to use only two verses; after all we will hear the tune many times in Ives' 
Variations. The Bach dance movements from the First Orchestral Suite will offer your 
students perspective on orchestral development as will Haydn's Symphony #103. 

Kathy Hopkins, the music specialist from Aversboro Elementary in Wake County, will be 
developing a web-site specifically for this year's education program. On this site there 
will be information about some of the players in the orchestra, the conductors, lesson 
plans and concert etiquette as well as a field trip checklist. I invite you to please take 
advantage of it, there will be a link from our homepage www.ncsymphony.org , and look 
for opportunities to win tickets to various events for yourself and your students. Thank 
you, Kathy! 

Some of you are aware that the Symphony has a composer-in-residence, Nathaniel 
Stookey. Nat will be in residence with us until 2003, he is here courtesy of a wonderful 
grant from Meet the Composer and our partners WUNC-radio, the Mallarme Chamber 
Players and the Ciompi String Quartet. There is a profile of Nat in this year's student 
book. One of Nat's many projects as part of his residency is to write a symphonic piece 
for our 2002-03 education concerts. This piece will be related to the centennial 
anniversary of the "First Flight" of the Wright Brothers. Throughout this year, Nat will 
be visiting schools all over the state to do mini-residencies; if you are interested in having 
him come to your school, please email me or call with your contact information at 
srousso(&incsvmphonv.org or 919-733-9536 extension 235. 

If you need information about ordering ADDITIONAL MATERIALS, please call us 
or go to our web-site; the forms will be downloadable from there. 

I wish you all the best for a great school year and a wonderful Symphony experience. If 
there is any way we can make the experience better or if you have suggestions, please 
don't hesitate to contact me. 

Suzanne Rousso, Director of Education 

June, 2001 



BACKGROUND INFORMATION 

Musical Ancestry 

The musical ancestry of Johann Sebastian Bach (and those with variants of the name: Bachen, 
Pach. and Pachen) seems to have originated in Ungern (Hungary), a region that included the 
Habsburg territories of Moravia and Slovakia. 

Vitus Bach, a baker of white bread, fled Ungern in the sixteenth century because of his Lutheran 
religion. He traveled to Germany, settling in Wechmar, near Gotha, where he continued his 
trade. Vitus Bach owned a small cittern (cytheringen), a zither-type instrument. He found great 
delight in playing this instrument, bringing it with him to the mill and playing it while waiting 
for the grinding to finish. 

Vitus' son, Hans Bach, a carpet weaver, was an itinerant violinist. He was known in central 
Germany as a wedding performer. He had 3 sons: Johannes (1604-73), an organist, violinist, and 
leader of the Erfurt band; Heinrich (1615-92), organist at Arnstadt; and Christoph (1613-61), 
who was a violinist in the Arnstadt town band. 

Christoph' s son, Johann Ambrosius was a singer and skilled on both the violin and viola. He 
was a court musician for the Duke of Eisenach. Eisenach was the hideout for Martin Luther @ 
153 1. It was in Eisenach that he translated the Bible into German and wrote many of his great 
hymns. 

The Eisenach Church book reads: 

"March 23, 1685. To Mr. Johann Ambrosius Bach, Town Musician, a son, godfathers Sebastian 
Nagel, Town Musician at Gotha, and Johann Georg Koch, Ducal Forester of this place. Name: 
Joh. Sebastian." 

Johann Sebastian Bach was one of eight children. The 'elder' Johann Christoph Bach was a 
cousin of Johann Ambrosius. He was a composer and organist at the St. George's church. 

Germany and the French Influence 

Eighteenth century Germany was divided into over 300 independent states, their unity shattered 
by the Thirty Years War. Princes and dukes ruled autocratically over their territories that were 
just a few square miles in area. They attempted to replicate the extravagant lifestyle of Louis 
XIV of France. Their palaces, ceremonies, and works of art were financed through the heavy 
taxation of the peasantry. 

The French contribution to music includes the ouverture with its slow introduction, quick fugue, 
and strong coda, the dance suite, and programme music. The French also led Europe in orchestra 
techniques, organization, and performance. 

Most Germanic rulers employed court musicians, and each city had official music makers. The 
court musicians performed at ceremonial and state functions. The municipal musicians might 
also perform at these functions, but their primary obligation was to provide music at the town's 
principal church. Churches also employed organists and cantors, or directors of music. 



CHILDHOOD AND YOUTH OF JOHANN SEBASTIAN 

At the age of eight, young Sebastian entered Eisenach's Latin School where he studied Bible 
History, the Catechism, and Latin Grammar. He went to class from 6 to 9 each morning and 1 to 
3 in the afternoon. There was also and extra hour of schooling in the winter. 

His mother, Elizabeth, died on May 3, 1694 when he was just nine years old. His father 
remarried in January 1695, but died one month later on February 20, 1695. That spring, 
Sebastian and an older brother, Johann Jakob, went to live with their oldest brother Johann 
Christoph, organist at Ohrdruf. The next year Johann Jakob returned to Eisenach to apprentice 
with the new town musician. Sebastian was then raised by Johann Christoph who taught him to 
play the clavier and probably assisted Sebastian in musical composition and the mastery of other 
instruments. 

From 1695-1700, the young Bach continued his studies at the Ohrdruf Latin School. He had a 
fine voice and earned extra money by singing. However, he had to leave the school at the age of 
15, due to lack of funds. 

A new music teacher at Ohrdruf, Elias Herda, recommended Sebastian to the school at Luneberg, 
200 miles to the north. His enthusiastic referral of Bach's abilities won him a scholarship which 
included a stipend and free board and instruction. 

Members of the Mettenchor (Boys Choir) at St. Michael's Church in Luneberg had to possess 
good voices and be offspring of poor people. What better place could there be for the young, 
orphaned Bach? As a member of the Mettenchor, he earned 12 groschen a month, but 
supplemented his income by singing at weddings and funerals, and as a street performer. 

While at Luneberg, Sebastian was influenced by French culture learned from students at the 
Ritterakademie, the school for young aristocrats which was also associated with St. Michael's. 
Bach was delighted with French keyboard music and copied suites of de Grigny and Dieupart. 

Bach was also influenced by Georg Bohm, the organist at St. John's Church, and a well known 
composer. Bohm's accounts of his own teacher, J. A. Reinken, organist at St. Catherine's in 
Hamburg greatly impressed Bach, and in 1701 he walked the 30 miles to hear both Reinken and 
Vincenz Lubeck, another famous organist from North Germany. He repeated this trip many 
times. By the spring of 1702, Bach's academic studies at St. Michael's were complete. He did 
not have the funds to attend a university, so at the age of 17, he began his musical career. 

MUSICAL CAREER OF JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

Arnstadt (1703-1707) 

Bach's adult music career began in Arnstadt as a violinist in the orchestra of Johann Ernst, the 
younger brother of the Duke of Weimar. He was also the assistant to the court organist, Johann 
Effler. 



A new organ was being installed at the St. Boniface church in Arnstadt. When it was completed, 
Bach was invited to inspect it. His performance at the organ test secured his position as church 
organist. He was also expected to organize a boys choir at the Latin school. 

Bach had difficulty dealing with his students and received several reprimands during his 3-year 
tenure. Parishioners also complained about Bach's hymn accompaniments. He added 
ornaments, counter melodies, extraordinary harmonies, and strange passages between the verses. 
They said he obliterated the melody and confused their ears. 

Muhlhausen (1707-1708) 

Bach's next position was organist at the St. Blasius Church in Muhlhausen. In addition to a 
larger salary, he was to receive 54 bushels of grain, 2 cords of wood, and a large quantity of 
faggots each year. While at Muhlhausen, Bach married Maria Barbara Bach, a distant cousin, on 
Oct. 17, 1707. 

Bach's first published organ works and church cantatas were composed while at St. Blasius. 
However, Bach soon discovered that the clergy and congregation of St. Blasius disapproved of 
excessive use of music and art in worship. 

In 1708, Bach gave a trial performance at the court of Wilhelm Ernst, Duke of Saxe- Weimar, 
and was appointed chamber musician and court organist. 

Weimar (1708-1717) 

Bach's new position at Weimar almost doubled his salary and brought him prestige. He was free 
to develop his ideas on church music and composed many of his best works for organ while at 
Weimar. These works included the "Little Organ Book" (BWV 599-644), Passacaglia in C minor 
(BWV 582), and the Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue in D minor (BWV 903). 

The "Little Organ Book" was written for the use of Bach's growing number of students. One 
student, Ernst August, nephew to the duke, developed a personality clash with Bach's employer. 
The Duke eventually prohibited his musicians from playing at his nephew's palace. Bach, 
however, was defiant and performed a birthday cantata for Ernst August at the forbidden palace. 
The Duke was furious and passed over Bach when the Kapellmeister's position became vacant. 

Ernst August married the sister of Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cothen, and encouraged the Prince 
to hire Bach as conductor at his court. Wilhelm Ernst refused to release Bach from his employ, 
forbidding Bach to leave. Bach objected so strenuously that he was jailed for almost a month. It 
is said that Bach wrote about 46 pieces of music during his interment. Upon release, he received 
an 'unfavourable discharge' on Dec. 2, 1717. Bach then moved on to Cothen. 

Cothen (1717-1723) 

Prince Leopold sang and played the clavier, violin and viola da gamba. In anticipation of Bach's 
arrival, he increased his number of court musicians from 3 to 17, providing Bach with a well- 
trained orchestra. 



While at Cothen, Bach composed the 6 Brandenburg Concertos (BWV 1046-1051), the four 
Orchestral Suites (BWV 1066=1069), the early Inventions and Sinfonias (BWV 772-801), and 
the Well Tempered Clavier I (BWV 846-869). 

His first wife died while Bach was on vacation in Carlsbad during the summer of 1720. On Dec. 
3, 1721, he married Anna Magdalena. 

The week after Bach's wedding, Prince Leopold also remarried. His second wife, Frederica 
Henrietta, had no interest or appreciation of music. Music ceased to play an important role at the 
Cothen court, and Bach began to prepare for another move. 

On June 5, 1722, Johann Kuhnau, the St. Thomas Cantor in Leipzig, died. At first, the vacant 
position was offered to Georg Philipp Telemann, who had applied for the position. At that time, 
Telemann was the Music Director and Cantor of Hamburg. Instead of accepting the new 
position, he used the invitation to bargain for a higher salary in Hamburg. Bach had not yet 
applied for the Leipzig position because of his friendship with Telemann. On Feb. 7, 1723, Bach 
passed the playing test for the post of Cantorate at Leipzig. Following a theological exam, he 
entered his new duties on May 30, 1723. 

Leipzig (1723-1750) 

At Leipzig, Bach was expected to serve many masters. As cantor, he was under the Consistory, 
which was made of lay people who supervised the church services. At the St. Thomas School, 
he had to report to the rector who felt that a musical education was superfluous. Bach came into 
conflict with the chancellor of the University at Leipzig due to his attempts to direct the music 
there. He was also director of music for the town of Leipzig. Here Bach was subject to the 
Town Council who seemingly lacked any musical knowledge. 

The St. Thomas School had a long-standing tradition of supplying choirs to the 4 main churches 
in town. Bach was expected to continue this with just 55 students under his direction. 

During the early years in Leipzig, there was the first performance of the St. John Passion and the 
St. Matthew Passion. Bach also wrote close to 30 cantatas during his first 3 years at Leipzig. 
Sadly, these performances did not live up to his expectations due to the inferior abilities of the 
Leipzig musicians. 

In August 1730, he wrote a memorandum of complaints titled, "Short but Most Necessary Draft 
for a Well-Appointed Church Music." Bach submitted it to the Town Council who denied his 
requests for a larger orchestra (18-20 members), choir (12-16 singers) and better trained and 
better paid musicians. 

By 1735, Bach had composed the St. Mark Passion, the Christmas Oratorio, the Easter Oratorio, 
and the Ascension Oratorio. After that his production of religious works almost ceased. He 
continued to write secular cantatas until about 1742. 



In 1736, Bach was appointed court Capellmeister and composer in Dresden (without special 
duties). Bach had flattered the royal family for years, writing congratulatory cantatas for various 
family members. 

The Goldberg Variations, composed in 1742, showed the influence of the new 'galant style.' 
The polyphonic structure is less dense, emphasizes the melody, and has a fixed phrase structure 
and a slower harmonic rhythm than the older Baroque style. 

Bach's Mass in B Minor (BWV 232), completed in 1749, returns to the strict counterpoint of 
Palestrina. The Well-Tempered Clavier II and the Art of the Fugue, unfinished at his death in 
1750, also show a return to strict counterpoint. 

Late in his life, Bach suffered from near blindness, due to cataracts. Treatment by the British 
oculist Taylor restored his eyesight, but may have resulted in blood poisoning. Bach is believed 
to have died of a stroke on July 28, 1750. His death was announced from the pulpit of St. 
Thomas': 

"Peacefully and blissfully departed to God the Esteemed and Highly Respected 
Mr. Johann Sebastian Bach, Court Composer to his Royal Majesty in Poland and 
Serene Electoral Highness in Saxony, as well as Capellmeister to the Prince of 
Anhalt-Cothen, and Cantor in St. Thomas' School, at the Square of St. Thomas'." 

During his lifetime, Bach was known more as a superior organist than as a composer. Many of 
his manuscripts were disposed of following his death. 

SOME INTERESTING FACTS 

Music Positions 

The cantor is the musical director of a Lutheran church. 

Town musicians are trained artisans who had civil rights and played for civic events and 

citizen's weddings. Their primary responsibility was to provide music at the town's principle 

churches. 

The Capellmeister was the orchestra leader in a princely court. 

Court musicians performed at ceremonial occasions and entertained at state functions. 

Itinerant musicians and beer-hall fiddlers were on the bottom rung of the musical hierarchy. 

Copied Manuscripts 

As a child in his brother's house, young Sebastian wished to study his brother's collection of 
clavier pieces, written by Bohm, Buxtehude, Pachelbel and Fosberger. Johann Christoph 
forbade this, telling him that the music was too difficult for Sebastian. For six months, Sebastian 
secretly copied the manuscripts at night, only to have them confiscated when his brother caught 
him in the act. Legend tells that young Sebastian already had the manuscripts committed to 
memory and could play them without the music! 



Herrings 

On one of young Bach's trips to Hamburg, to hear the organist Reinken, he stayed longer that his 
finances allowed. On the way back to school in Luneberg, he became quite hungry. He heard 
the window of an inn open and was women toss a pair of herring heads on top of the trash. He 
grabbed them up, started to tear them apart, and found a Danish ducat hidden in each head! He 
was then able to enjoy a satisfying meal at the inn. 

"Nannygoat Bassoonist" 

As a young teacher in Arnstadt, Bach's temper often got the best of him. One day while on a 
stroll, he was approached by a student named Gegenbach. Gegenbach was angry because Bach 
had called him a "nannygoat bassoonist", due to his poor tone quality on the instrument. The 
student demanded an apology and Bach refused. The two became embroiled in a street brawl, 
and Bach, pulling his sword, tore Gegenbach' s clothes. Fortunately, no one was injured, but 
Bach received a reprimand for his poor relationships with his students. 

Kaffee Kantate 

During Bach's time, coffeehouses became extremely popular. Moralists became concerned 
about the abuse of coffee, believing that socializing in a coffeehouse would promote "loose 
living." Housewives were accused of neglecting their duties, wasting time over "coffee socials." 

The Kaffee Kantate was written in 1734, one year after Pergolesi's opera comique, La Serva 
Padrona" (The Strict Housewife). In Bach's cantata, a father is concerned that his daughter 
Liesgen (Lizzy) will not give up her coffee drinking habits. The father tries to bribe his daughter 
with a husband, to which she stipulates that the husband must allow her to drink her coffee! 

The inventory of Bach's estate reveals numerous coffeepots. One of the pots was assessed for 
four times the worth (18 thalers or $2000.00) of a "little spinet" (3 thalers). 

The Name 'BACH' 

The German translation for bach is "a little brook." Beethoven suggested that the definition was 
inappropriate for so great a figure. He stated that the Bach name would be better symbolized by 
a mighty ocean. 

Bach used a motive on his name (B flat -A -C-HorB natural) as his signature in the Art of 
the Fugue, and in some of his chorale variations. Schumann and Mendelssohn borrowed it for 
piano variations. Busoni, Stravinsky, Schoenberg and Berg also wove the BACH motif into their 
compositions. 

THE CHILDREN OF J. S. BACH 

Johann Sebastian Bach was the father of 20 children, however, only 10 lived to adulthood. His 
first wife, Maria Barbara, was a distant cousin, the youngest daughter of Johann Michael Bach, 
who was a composer. She gave birth to seven children: five sons and two daughters, including a 
set of twins who died at birth. 



Bach's obituary has these accounts of his surviving children: The eldest, Catherina Dorothea . 
was born in 1708 and never married. Wilhelm Friedemann (b. 1710) became organist at the 
Markt-Kirche in Halle. Carl Phillip Emanuel (b. 1714) was a composer and Royal Prussian 
Chamber Musician. 

After 13 years of marriage, Maria Barbara died in 1720. Bach married his second wife, Anna 
Magdalena in 1721. She gave birth to 13 children: 6 sons and 7 daughters. The following six 
were alive at the time of Bach's death: Gottfried Heinrich , born in 1724. Elisabeth Juliane 
Fridnke (b. 1726), married to the Organist of St. Wenceslas' in Naumberg, Mr. Altnikol, also a 
composer. Johann Christoph Friedrich (b. 1732), Chamber Musician to the Imperial Court of 
Schaumburg-Lippe. Johann Christian (b. 1735). Johanna Carolina (b. 1737). Regina Susanna (b. 
1742). 

As was the custom of the day, Bach's sons took the limelight. Daughters were suppressed as 
they should only be concerned with Kirche, Kuche, Kinder (Church, Kitchen, Children). The 
surviving three unmarried daughters and Bach's widow, Anna Magdalena, were reduced to 
poverty upon Bach's death. 

Regina Susanna was the only child to live into the nineteenth century. In 1800, hearing of her 
near starvation, Friedrich Rochlitz, editor of Leipzig's principal music magazine, initiated a 
collection to help sustain her. He was joined by Beethoven and his circle of friends in Vienna in 
this effort. They established a fund of 256 thalers (nearly $30,000.00). Regina lived off this 
fund until her death in 1809. She was 67 years old. 

Bach lavished a great deal of attention on the education of his eldest son, Wilhelm Friedemann. 
Friedemann, though very talented, never lived up to his father's expectations. Bach's second 
son, Carl Philipp Emanuel, was more successful. In his fifties, he became the cantor and music 
director of Hamburg, the great Hanseatic port city. C. P. E. Bach is credited with the 
development of the sonata form. 

Upon J. S. Bach's death, C. P. E. Bach took in Johann Christian, the youngest of Bach's sons. 
As an adult, Johann Christian converted to Catholicism and was employed at the English court, 
composing operas and concertos in the Art Galant style. 

Johann Gottfried Bernhard (b. 1715) was not university educated. This troubled son assisted his 
father in cantorial tasks. Bach secured different positions for him in Muhlhausen, Arnstaldt, and 
Sangerhausen. He died of a fever at the age of 24. Johann Christoph, the fourth son, became 
capellmeister in Buckeburg. He was the last surviving son of J. S. Bach. He died in 1795. 



THE MUSIC 

Orchestral Suite No. 1 in C major, BWV 1066 

The suite is the oldest form of instrumental music with multiple movements. It consists 
primarily of dance forms and can be introduced by a prelude. 



J.S. Bach wrote 4 orchester-partien (orchestral suites). No. 1 (BWV 1066) is in C major; No. 2 
(BWV 1067) is in b minor; No. 3 (BWV 1068) is in D major, as is No. 4 (BWV 1069). The 
dances are patterned after Lully's ballets and operas and do not appear in and standard number or 
order. Each of Bach's orchestral suites begins with a French ouverture in this form; 
||:grave:||fugue||:grave:||. 

The major components of the baroque suite are the allemande, courante, sarabande and gigue. 
Of these, Bach uses only the courante in his first orchestral suite. 
The movements of Orchestral Suite No. 1 in C major are: 



I 


Ouverture 


II 


Courante 


III 


Gavotte I, alternativement 




Gavotte II 


IV 


Forlane 


V 


Menuetto I, alternativement 




Menuetto II 


VI 


Bouree I, alternativement 




Bouree II 


VII 


Passepied I 




Passepied II 






The courante is a dance from the sixteenth century. Bach's courantes are usually of the French 
style; moderate 3/2 or 6/4 time with a frequent shift in meter (1-3-5) to (1-4). The hemiola, 
creating instability of the rhythm, is typical of the courante. The melodic interest frequently 
shifts from upper to lower parts. 

The gavotte is a French dance from the seventeenth century. The name is derived from the word 
"Gavots" who were inhabitants of the French province Pays de Gays in Dauphine. The gavotte 
is usually in a moderate 4/4 time, with an anacrusis of 2 quarter notes. The phrases usually 
begin and end in the middle of a measure. The gavotte in BWV 1066 is in cut time, with a one 
beat anacrusis. Bach did not always use 2 quarter notes for the anacrusis. 

This gavotte has a "double" which is a variation, usually with the addition of embellishments. 
The double usually contrasts with the primary dance dominating in dynamics, with larger 
instrumentation. The term "trio" came from this custom, because the double would use only 3 
instruments or be in 3 parts. During the gavotte of BWV 1066, the violins and viola play a soft 
fanfare, possibly to compensate for the lack of trumpets. 

The forlane is a Venetian dance in 6/4 time, resembling a gigue. It is a joyful dance with dotted 
rhythms and repeated motifs. 

The menuetto is a French country dance from Poitou. It was introduced at the court of Louis 
XIV around 1650. The menuetto has a floor pattern in the shape of a Z or an S. It is the only 
baroque dance that did not become obsolete after 1750 (which marked the decline of the suite). 
It is in 3 A time and was originally in moderate tempo. In BWV 1066, the trio of the menuetto 



uses only stringed instruments. The rhythmic style changes from using eighth note passages and 
dotted rhythms to 2 note slurs using quarter notes. 

The bouree is a seventeenth century French peasant dance from the province of Auvergne. It is 
usually in a quick duple meter with a single upbeat. Bach's Bouree II in BWV 1066 uses the 2 
oboe parts and the figured bass for the trio. 

The passepied is a French peasant dance from the province of Brittany. It is a spirited, quick 
dance, usually in 3/8 or 6/8. The passepied was popular at the French courts of Louis XIV and 
Louis XV. The passespied in Bach's Orchestral Suite No. 1 uses 2 oboes, violin, viola and 
figured bass, usually a keyboard instrument such as cembalo, clavichord or harpsichord. 

Each of the short dances in the suite is in binary form. Alternativement indicates that one section 
will alternate with another. In this suite, the Gavotte, Menuetto and Bouree call for the repeat of 
section A (I) after section B (II) is played, creating an overall compound ternary form. The score 
also indicates that Passepied I is to be repeated after Passepied II is played. 

Bach wrote only 4 suites for orchestra. Why such a low number? There are 2 possible answers 

to that question. 

#1 - As a church musician, Bach had few opportunities to perform such suites. 

#2 - Bach sought originality within each genre that he wrote. He may have felt limited by the 

structure of the French Ouverture form. 

MUSIC TERMS 

Alternativment : (French) indicates that one section will alternate with another. 

Baroque instruments : there was a trend towards using string instruments - the viol, violin 
and lute. The recorder and oboe were popular wind instruments. The trumpet and horns 
were used after 1750. 

Baroque music : @1600-1750. Follows the Renaissance "thoroughbasse period". The term 
'baroque' is taken from the Portuguese 'barroco', an irregularly shaped pearl. The 
Baroque music period ended with the deaths of Bach and Handel. 

Binary : AB form, with each section repeated. 

Double : a variation, usually the addition of embellishments. 

Episode : a secondary passage or section that digresses from the main theme. 

Figured bass, thoroughbass : 'thorough' means the same as continuo (continuing throughout the 
piece) It grew out of improvisation techniques of the 16 l century. It is a method of indicating 
an accompanying part by the bass notes only. It uses figures designating the chief intervals and 
chords to be played above the bass notes. 



10 



Suite : instrumental form of Baroque music. It consists of a number of movements, each in 
the character of a dance. The movements are in the same key. 

CALL CHART - ORCHESTRAL SUITE NO. 1 IN C MAJOR 
(BWV 1066) 



II Courante 
Time 

0:00 



0:18 
0:36 



1:20-2:05 



Description 

Section A, mf measures 6-7 are a 

sequence of measures 4-5, a third 

lower 

Repeat of section A, p 

Section B 

opening subject, one step higher followed 

by a 4 measure episode, then a 4 measure 

restatement of the opening subject 

Repeat of section B,f 



Measures 



1-8 



1-8 
9-28 



9-28 



III Gavotte I, alternativement, Gavotte II 



0:00 


Section A, mf measures 6-7 are a 
sequence of measures 4-5, a third 


1-8 


0:12 


Repeat of section A, p 


1-8 


0:23 


Section B 

Sequential passages in the oboe and first 

violin parts 


8-24 


0:36 


P 


16-24 


0:46 


Repeat of section B,p 


16-24 


1:12 


Gavotte II 


1-24 




strings accompany the oboes in a fanfare 
style 




1:20 


Repeat of section A, mf 


1-8 


1:32 


Section B 

dialogue between the 2 oboes 


9-24 


1:55 


Repeat of section B, 


9-24 


2:20 


Alternativement (Gavotte I), without repeats 


2:30 


Section B of alternativement 




IV Forlane 






0:00 


Section A - oboe melody is predominate 


1-8 



Melody (oboe and violin I) play dotted 

Rhythms 

Accompanying strings (violin II and viola) 

Play repeated motifs 



11 



0: 1 6 Repeat of section A - violin melody is 1 -8 

prominent,/ 
0:32 Section B- figured bass plays dotted 9-24 

rhythms 
1 :03 Repeat of section B, p, ritard at end of 9-24 

the section 

V Menuetto I, alternativement, Menuetto II 

0:00 Section A 1-9 

0:10 Repeat of section A 1-9 

0:18 Section B,/ 10-25 

sequence of section A, a fourth lower 
0:36 Repeat of section B, p 

0:55 Menuetto II, p, style changes 1-24 

2 note slurs, no dotted rhythms 

strings and figured bass, no oboes 
1 :00 Repeat section A of Menuetto II 1-8 

1 :05 Section B, sequence of section A, a third 9-24 

higher 
1:13 mf 17-24 

1:31 Repeat of section B,p 

1:50 Alternativement, Menuetto I, 

2:10 Section B of Menuetto I, alternativement 

VI Bouree I, alternativement, Bouree II 

0:00 Section A, violin II echoes opening motif 1-8 

0:10 Repeat of section A. p 1-8 

0:20 Section B 9-24 

0:41 Repeat of section B. mf 9-24 

1:01 Bouree II, section A 1-8 

oboe I and II play a trio with the 

figured bass part 

1:12 Repeat of section A, Bouree II 1 -8 

1:24 Section B 9-24 

1 :44 Repeat of section B 

2:04 Alternativement, Bouree I, section A 1-8 

2:14 Section B of Bouree I, alternativement 9-24 

VII Passepied I, repatur, Passepied II 

0:00 Section A 1-9 

0:10 Repeat of section A, p 1-10 

0:20 Section B, mf 11-30 

0:36 Repeat of section B, p 11-30 

0:56 Passepied II - strings repeat the 'A' 1-28 

melody of Passepied I, one octave lower 

oboe has a countermelody 



12 



1 : 04 Repeat of section A, Passepied II 1-8 

1:12 Section B 9-28 

1 :3 1 Repeat of section B, Passepied II 9-28 

1:51 Repatur, Passepied I. Section A 

1:58 Section B, Passepied I, repatur 



CROSS CURRICULUM VOCABULARY 

Culture: 

music : instruments, movement, oral and written music, language 

dance : period dance, costumes, music 

theater arts : costumes, music, time periods 

visual art : masks, fabric, jewelry 

social studies : social skills, mores and customs, political and economic 

systems 

Measurement: 

music : meter, beat, rhythm, duration 
dance : time, space, distance, balance 
visual arts : space, size, proportion 
math: time 



Line: 



language arts : meter in poetry 



music : rhythm melody, harmonic structure (block and broken chords) 
dance : movement, pathways, shape, time 
visual art : straight, curved, angular, connected/disconnected 
social studies : time line, societal change, maps, lineage 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

♦ Abraham, Gerald. Concert Music (1630-1750) . Oxford University Press, N.Y., 1986. 

♦ Apel, Willi. Harvard Dictionary of Music, 2 nd . ed. Belknap Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1974. 

♦ Berry, Wallace. Form in Music . Prentice-Hall, Inc., N.J., 1966. 

♦ Bettmann, Otto L. Johann Sebastian Bach- As His World Knw Him . Carol Pub. Group, 
N.Y., 1995. 

♦ Butt, John, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Bach . Cambridge University Press, N.Y., 
1997. 

♦ Carley, Isabel McNeill. Renaissance Dances for Dancers Young and Old . Warner Bros. 
Pub., Miami, Florida, 2000. 

♦ David, Hans T. and Arthur Mendel. The Bach Reader . W.W. Norton and Co., Inc., NY., 
1966. 

♦ Dowley, Tim Bach: His Life and Times . Midas Books, Kent, England, 1981 



13 



♦ Gleason, Harold and Warren Becker. Music In the Baroque, 3 rd . ed . Frangipani Press, 
Bloomington, Indiana, 1980. 

♦ Grout. A History of Western Music . W.W. Norton and Co., Inc., N.Y., 1973. 

♦ Hilgrove, Thomas. A Complete Practical Guide to the Art of Dancing . Dick and Fitzgerald, 
New York, 1868. 

♦ Joiner, Betty. Costumes for the Dance. A.S. Barnes and Co., N.Y., 1937. 

♦ Krull, Kathleen. Lives of the Musicians. Harcourt, Brace and Co., N.Y. 1993. 

♦ Rachlin, Ann Famous Children: Bach Barron's Educational Series, Inc., N.Y. 1992. 

♦ Spitta, Phillip. Johann Sebastian Bach . Dover Pub., Inc., N.Y.. 1951. 

♦ Staton, Barbara and Merrill Staton. Music and You, Grade 4 . Macmillan Pub. Co., N.Y., 
N.Y., 1991. 

♦ Wohlfarth, Hannsdieter. Johann Sebastian Bach Fortress Press, Philadelphia, 1966. 

INTERNET RESOURCES 

http://www.baroquedance.com 
http://www.jsbach.org/biography.html 
http://www. Worksheet Factory.com 



Maggie Wright received her Bachelor's degree in Music Education from James Madison 
University in Harrisonburg, Va. She did graduate work in Piano Pedagogy at Virginia 
Commonwealth University in Richmond, Va., and earned her Master in Music degree from East 
Carolina University in Greenville, N.C. She teaches K-5 music at Graham A. Barden 
Elementary School in Havelock, N.C. where she also chairs the Gifted Education Team and is a 
member of the award winning (once!) spelling team "GABbee Spellers." She teaches private 
piano and accompanies the youth choirs at her church, First Presbyterian of New Bern, N.C. She 
is an avid bell ringer, performing with the Sanctuary Bells and an ensemble group, The Bells of 
Joy at her church. Her son, Tim, is an enthusiastic Wolfpack fan and a junior at N.C. State 
University. 



14 



Name: 


Date: 


Teacher: 


Class: 


Crossword Puzzler 



Why did the police go to the baseball game? Somebody 
stole second base! 

Use the clues to complete the puzzle. 










1 




















2 




3 






4 








5 














6 




















7 




8 
















9 














10 






























































11 




















































12 


























13 












































14 














15 






16 


















































17 

























































ACROSS 

1 . French dance - from 'Gavots' 

3. set of dances 

8. name of the most famous Bach 

10. a variation 

1 1 . means 'continuing throughout the piece' 

12. Bach was best known for playing this 
instrument 

13. name of Bach's favorite prince 

14. Bach wrote 6 Brandenburg 



16. Bach spent most of his adult life here 

1 7. Bach was the father of children 



DOWN 

1 . Bach was born in this country 

2. AB form, with repeats 

4. using 3 instruments or 3 parts 

5. style of overture used by Bach 

6. Mettenchor 

7. Baroque dance that did not become 
obsolete after 1 750 

9. Bach called a student a 'nannygoat_ 

14. Well Tempered , a 

keyboard instrument 

15. double reed instrument 

16. Bach attended this type of school 



© WorksheetFactory.com 



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Score: 



15 



Answer Key 


Date: 


Teacher: 


Class: 


Crossword Puzzler 



Why did the police go to the baseball game? Somebody 
stole second base! 

Use the clues to complete the puzzle. 






*o 


a 


V 


o 


t 


t 


e 






2 b 
i 






3 s 


u 


i 


4 t 


e 






5 f 
r 




e 
r 

m 
a 






6 b 








r 










7 m 
e 
n 




e • 
J 


o 


h 


a 


n 


n 


s 


e 


9 b 


a 


s 


t 


i 


a 


n 


10 d 


o 


u 


b 


I 


e 




y 

s 
c 

h 




a 

r 

y 






a 
s 
s 






o 






n 










11 c 


o 


n 


t 


i 


n 


u 


o 










h 




y 




e 
t 
t 










1 b 


r 


g 


a 


n 








13 l 


e 


o 


P 


o 


I 


d 




o 
n 


















i 










1 c 


o 


n 


c 


e 


r 


t 


1 b 


s 




16 l 


e 


i 


P 


z 


i 


9 






I 
a 

V 

i 

e 
r 








b 
o 
e 






a 

t 

n 




s 














17 t 


w 


e 


n 


t 


y 























ACROSS 

1 . French dance - from 'Gavots' 

3. set of dances 

8. name of the most famous Bach 

10. a variation 

1 1 . means 'continuing throughout the piece' 

12. Bach was best known for playing this 
instrument 

13. name of Bach's favorite prince 

14. Bach wrote 6 Brandenburg 



16. Bach spent most of his adult life here 

1 7. Bach was the father of children 



DOWN 

1 . Bach was born in this country 

2. AB form, with repeats 

4. using 3 instruments or 3 parts 

5. style of overture used by Bach 

6. Mettenchor 

7. Baroque dance that did not become 
obsolete after 1750 

9. Bach called a student a 'nannygoat_ 

14. Well Tempered , a 

keyboard instrument 

15. double reed instrument 

16. Bach attended this type of school 



© WorksheetFactory.com 



WS#: 



Score: 



16 



Name: 
Teacher: 



Date: 
Class: 



Word Jumble Mix-Up 



Did you hear about the teacher that had to wear 

sunglasses in the classroom? She had extremely bright pupils! 

Unscramble each word and write it on the line. 



1 PODELLO 




2. 
3. 


BISSNSATOO 
OTIR 


4. 


NGEAMRY 


5. 


TNCCOESOR 


6. 


CNUOINOT 


7. 


IVEALCR 


8. 


EDLUBO 


9. 


NWETTY 


10. 


I I hNUOME 



1 OOBE 



2. GZEIPLI 



3. USETI 



4. EGTAVOT 



5. HOROCSYBI 

6. HNRFCE 



7. RBIANY 



8. TNILA 



9 NAGOR 



20 TOINENNSSAABHJA 



BASSOONIST 


CONTINUO 


JOHANNSEBASTIAN 


OBOE 


BINARY 


DOUBLE 


LATIN 


ORGAN 


BOYSCHOIR 


FRENCH 


LEIPZIG 


SUITE 


CLAVIER 


GAVOTTE 


LEOPOLD 


TRIO 


CONCERTOS 


GERMANY 


MENUETTO 


TWENTY 



© WorksheetFactory.com 



WS#: 



Score: 



17 



Answer Key Date: 


Teacher: Class: 


Word Jumble Mix-Up 



Did you hear about the teacher that had to wear 

sunglasses in the classroom? She had extremely bright pupils! 



Unscramble each word and write it on the line. 



i. PODELLO LEOPOLD 




2. BISSNSATOO BASSOONIST 



3. OTIR TRIO 



4. NGEAMRY GERMANY 



s. TNCCOESORCONCERTOS 



6 CNUOINOTCONTINUO 



7. IVEALCR CLAVIER 



8. EDLUBO DOUBLE 



9 NWETTY TWENTY 



1. OOBE OBOE 



2 GZEIPLI LEIPZIG 



3 USETI SUITE 



4. EGTAVOT GAVOTTE 



5 HOROCSYBI BOYSCHOIR 



6. HNRFCE FRENCH 



7. RBIANY BINARY 



8. TNILA LATIN 



9 NAGOR ORGAN 



10 TTENUOMEMENUETTO 20 TOINENNSSAABHJAJOHANNSEB 



BASSOONIST 


CONTINUO 


JOHANNSEBASTIAN 


OBOE 


BINARY 


DOUBLE 


LATIN 


ORGAN 


BOYSCHOIR 


FRENCH 


LEIPZIG 


SUITE 


CLAVIER 


GAVOTTE 


LEOPOLD 


TRIO 


CONCERTOS 


GERMANY 


MENUETTO 


TWENTY 



© WorksheetFactory.com 



WS#: 



Score: 



Name; 
Class: 



Date: 
Teacher: 



Word Search Challenge 

How do you make an elephant float? Ginger ale, ice 
cream, and one elephant! 

Find the hidden words. 




A 


H 


A 


E 


1 


D 


B 


1 


N 


A 


R 


Y 


X 


S 


K 


1 


B 


H 


C 


L 


G 


D 


R 


P 


1 


B 


A 


D 


S 


T 


1 


X 


A 


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V 


Z 


C 


1 


P 


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A 


H 


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L 


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X 


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A 


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C 


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H 


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Q 


N 


1 


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N 


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-E 


U 


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Q 


F 


P 


K 


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X 


c 


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A 


L 


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Q 


W 


F 


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G 


A 


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T 


T 


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A 


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L 


N 


W 


Q 


Y 


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G 


t 


B 


o 


U 


R 


E 


E 


Y 


E 


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V 


F 


E 


M 


U 


Z 


a 


U 


H 


B 


D 


N 


P 


G 


V 


K 


G 


u 


L 


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M 


X 


A 


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Q 


E 


B 


T 


N 


H 


Y 


c 


E 


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D 


X 


Y 


W 


G 


L 


1 


C 


R 


F 


Q 


Q 


D 


O 


U 


B 


L 


E 


E 


O 


Y 


C 


R 


T 


c 


-z 


a 


S^ 


T 


S 


G 


1+ 


a 


K 


Y 


~E 


Y 


V 


H 


H 


M 


U 


C 


R 


P 


Y 


O 


L 


T 


T 


s 


K 


P 


G 


B 


C 


L 


F 


L 


C 


O 


U 


R 


A 


N 


T 


E 


V 


H 


Q 


Q 


S 


V 


O 


Q 


w 


H 


O 


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O 


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G 


A 


H 


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X 


G 


B 


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F 


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10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 



bach 


double 


passepied 


cembalo 


germany 


orchestra 


alternativement 


thoroughbass 


harpsichord 


clavichord 


suite 


gavotte 


continuo 


frenchouverture 


instrument 


baroque 


forlane 


binary 


meter 




movement 


menuetto 


violin 


organ 




eourante 


bouree 


ibie 


leipzig 





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WS#: 



Score: 



19 



Answer Key 
Class: 



Date: 
Teacher: 



Word Search Challenge 

Hew do you make an etephant float? Ginger ate, ice 

cream, and one elephant! 

Find the hidden words. 




A 


H 


A 


E 


1 


D 


B 


1 


N 


A 


R 


Y 


X 


S 


K 


1 


B 


H 


C 


L 


G 


D 


R 


P 


1 


B 


A 


D 


S 


T 


I 


X 


A 


D 


V 


Z 


C 


1 


P 


Y 


B 


A 


H 


S 


L 


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X 


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A 


N 


C 


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H 


S 


Q 


rsr 


r 


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Q 





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1 


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1 


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F 


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B 


L 


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Y 


C 


R 


T 


c 


Z 


G 


S 


T 


S 


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H 


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Y 


E 


Y 


V 


N 


H 


M 


U 


C 


R 


P 


Y 


O 


L 


T 


T 


s 


K 


P 


G 


B 


C 


L 


F 


L 


C 


O 


U 


R 


A 


N 


T 


E 


V 


H 


Q 


Q 


S 


V 


O 


Q 


w 


H 


O 


E 


O 


R 


G 


A 


N 


1 


o 


A 


X 


G 


B 


E 


U 


s 


U 


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F 


R 


E 


N 


C 


H 


O 


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V 


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T 


U 


R 


E 


N 


A 


S 


W 


Q 


Y 


Q 


J 


O 



10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 



bach 


double 


passepied 


cembalo 


germany 


orchestra 


altemativement 


thoroughbass 


harpsichord 


clavichord 


suite 


gavotte 


continuo 


frenchouverture 


instrument 


baroque 


fori arte 


binary 


meter 




movement 


menuetto 


violin 


organ 




courante 


bouree 


ibie 


leipzig 





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Score: 



20 



Symphony No. 103 in E b Major, "Drumroll" Classroom Activities 

Movement IV: Allegro con spirito by Susan Trivette 

Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) 

Franz Joseph Haydn is the oldest of the great classical composers. He created a whole new 
world of instrumental music. He was the "Father of the Symphony" although he was actually the 
prime developer rather than its creator. He was the near-inventor of the string quartet and the 
godfather of sonata and sonata form. It is impossible to determine exactly how many 
compositions Haydn wrote. Many were falsely attributed to him because the seller knew 
Haydn's name would attract buyers (For example, the Toy Symphony may have actually been 
written by Leopold Mozart). An unofficial list shows 104 symphonies, 68 string quartets and 52 
piano sonatas. Much of his music is absolute music (music that does not depend upon art, 
literature or any extramusical idea for its meaning). The meaning is in the music itself. 

Mainly an instrumental composer, his work in this form (establishing the 4 contrasting 
movements of allegro, adagio, minuet and finale) was very influential even though he didn't start 
writing symphonies until he was 27. He constantly experimented with the form and context. 
Sometimes his symphonies began with a long slow movement instead of the usual brilliant 
allegro. Sometimes he used shock effect and trick rhythms to throw listeners off balance and to 
comment on the life of musical servants. Annoyed at dozing audiences he composed the 
Andante of the Surprise Symphony. The need for a vacation supposedly prompted the writing of 
the Farewell Symphony. 

Haydn was one of the first, possibly THE first, composer to allow his melodies to be patterned 
after folk tunes and dances. Sometimes, such as in the fourth movement of the Drumroll 
Symphony, he based whole movements on Hungarian or Croatian folksongs. 

He was born in Rohrau, Austria on March 31, 1732. Haydn spent his earliest years listening to 
his mother sing the folk tunes of Hungary, tunes that one day found their way into his 
compositions. There was little pride in a boy so poor that he practiced violin technique by 
scraping one stick across another. He learned the art of drumming on a flour barrel. His father 
was a wheelwright who made wheels for carriages as most of the male family members did. His 
mother was a cook in the household of a count. 

Despite the poverty, musical performances in his home were frequent events. Both his parents 
were musical. His father sang and played the harp. His mother also sang. Three of the 
seventeen children inherited the love of music. The eleventh child Johann became a professional 
singer. The sixth child Michael was a noted composer and colleague of Mozart in Salzburg. But 
the greatest fame was for the second child Franz Joseph who was known as Sepperl (Joey) in his 
youth and later known as Joseph. 

At age 5 he went to live with his cousin Johann Mathias Franck. He taught him Latin, singing, 
violin and other instruments. At age 8 or 9 he went to Vienna as a choirboy at the Cathedral of 
St. Stephen, where he continued his studies especially in composition. He remained there until 
he was "rendered unfit for service by his changing voice." 



21 



His first job in Vienna was as a personal servant to Nicola Porpora, a well-known Italian singing 
teacher and composer. When it was suggested that Haydn study with him, Porpora became 
angry. This did not discourage Haydn. He polished Porpora' s shoes, brushed his coat, and fixed 
his wig. Through good humor and intelligence he gained Porpora' s friendship, which resulted in 
the lessons in composition that he wanted. 

In the 18 century every castle had its own band of professional musicians. Musicians were little 
more than servants. The household musician was on the level with domestic help, ranking 
somewhere above the cooks and below the master's personal valet. He was on equal status with 
the master of the stables and the keeper of the silver. He ate in the servants' dining hall and wore 
the livery or costume required of all the hired help. When the master retired to his distant 
summer home, the musicians went too. 

Employment by a Count in 1759 provided enough security that he considered marriage but the 
young lady he chose entered a convent. He was persuaded to marry her older sister, Maria Ann 
Keller. This proved to be a big mistake that caused him suffering for forty years until she died. 

Soon after his marriage the Count dismissed his orchestra and Haydn went to work for Prince 
Anton Esterhazy at the family country home in Eisenstadt. He worked for this family for thirty 
years being employed by Anton's brother Nicolaus and then by his son Anton. The Esterhazy 
were known throughout Europe for their noble birth and generous patronage of the arts. 

Esterhaza was built in imitation of the palace at Versailles. It had 126 paneled and gilded guest 
rooms, 2 halls for dining and dancing, theaters for operas and marionette shows, an art gallery, 
hothouses, orangeries, a park and game preserves. There were hundreds of permanent servants 
from painters of the family portraits to landscape gardeners, who kept everything running. 

Haydn's principal task at Esterhaza was to provide musical entertainment. He composed dozens 
of symphonies as well as a steady stream of dances, marches, cantatas, string quartets, masses, 
oratorios, operas, compositions for musical clock and incidental music for the spoken dramas. 

The court orchestra at Esterhaza included 1 flute, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, timpani and a 
small group of strings. Haydn convinced Esterhazy to add instruments when necessary. Extra 
players came from the local church or the town musicians. He borrowed trumpets and 
kettledrums from the master of the hunt. Virtuoso instrumentalists were also attracted to 
Haydn's orchestra. 

Haydn was responsible for the standardization of an orchestra that became the classical model 
for many years: 1 or 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, timpani, 6 first violins, 6 second 
violins, 3 violas, 2 cellos, 2 double basses. Later symphonies included 2 trumpets. Haydn only 
used clarinet in 6 of his symphonies. During the 1780's one of the highlights of his life was his 
friendship with Mozart, which began in 1781. Even though Haydn was much older and often 
absent from Vienna they still remained friends. 



22 



In 1790 another great change occurred in Haydn's life. Prince Nicolaus Esterhazy died. Haydn 
was deeply affected by the loss of friendship as well as the loss of his employer. Haydn left 
Esterhaza and the quiet life. 

In 1791 he accepted an invitation from the London impresario Salomon to visit. This visit lasted 
18 months. He spoke no English but proved his belief that "my language of music is understood 
all over the world." For the London gentry he composed 6 new works (Symphonies Nos. 93-98). 
He made a second visit to London in 1794, again at Salomon's invitation. Again he composed 6 
symphonies (Nos. 99-104). These with the first 6 became known as the London Symphonies. 

While in England he was impressed with the loyalty of the citizens to the British crown in the 
anthem "God Save the King." In 1797 after he returned to Vienna Haydn wrote "God Save the 
Emperor Franz" that became the Austrian national anthem. 

Haydn was a lonely man. His closest friend was Mozart who was 24 years younger than he. He 
was deeply religious. Physically he was short and dark with a face pitted by smallpox. His legs 
were too short for his body. His nose had a polyp that threw it out of shape and he appeared to 
have been sensitive about it. He never commissioned a portrait. He had a sweet kind 
disposition, was even tempered and made no enemies. He was an industrious, patient and 
persistent worker. He was modest, generous, and honest with a good sense of humor. He 
enjoyed good health except for some eye trouble and rheumatism at the end of his life. He was 
not well educated being mostly self-taught and not much of a reader, but he was a practical man 
with good common sense. He liked to dress well. He was precise and regular in conducting his 
business. 

He saw his country humbled by Napoleon in 1805 and affected by the break up of the Holy 
Roman Empire in 1806. The occupation of Vienna by French troops in 1809 was a severe shock 
to Haydn. Vienna was bombed and some of the shells fell near Haydn's house. This probably 
hastened Haydn's death even though the French soldiers were kind to him. One of his last 
visitors was a French soldier who sang a song that Haydn had composed. He died "full of years 
and honors" on May 31, 1809. His death ended the classical period in music history. When 
Haydn died he had been a friend to Mozart, a teacher to Beethoven and an inspiration to 
everyone who had come in contact with him so that he acquired the nickname "Papa Haydn." 

His funeral was a national event. He was buried in a churchyard outside the city. Eleven years 
later his remains were moved to Eisenstadt, except for his skull, which had been stolen by a 
music society in Vienna. The society kept it until 1954 when it was allowed to be buried with 
the rest of his body. 

SYMPHONY NO. 103 DRUMROLL 

Symphony No. 103 is one of several that Haydn wrote in the key of E b . Its movements are I. 
Allegro con spirito, II. Andante, III. Menuetto, IV. Allegro con spirito. It is scored for 2 flutes, 
2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, kettledrums and strings. Opening 
unorthodoxly with the roll of timpani in the first measure of the adagio, hence the name 
"Drumroll," it was composed in 1 795 for the second series of Salomon concerts and was first 



23 



performed on March 2 of that year in London. Haydn presided at the harpsichord or piano 
(Advertisement had announced it would be the harpsichord.). 

Haydn's love for the drum and his first use of it go back to early childhood: 
"On a certain occasion a drummer was needed for a street procession. Haydn, then a small boy, 
was allowed to fill the vacancy after he learned to make the drum stroke. He was so little that 
the drum had to be adjusted to his height by being carried ahead of him on the back of another 
short person — a hunchback. This was the beginning of Haydn's 'drum rolls.' He never lost 
interest in the instrument, and prided himself upon his skill in playing it, even taking his turn at 
the drums in Salomon's orchestra when he was in London." 

The fourth movement is Haydn at his finest in trying to play tricks on the audience. While the 
fourth movement of a 18 th century symphony was typically a rondo, occasionally it was written 
in sonata-allegro form. Since the exposition has material that sounds like it is a repeat of the 
beginning and the development begins with a literal repeat of the opening in the same key, this is 
considered a cross between sonata allegro and rondo form making it a sonata-rondo. The form is 
not easy to point out exactly because Haydn tries to fool the listener by making them wonder 
what will come next. Just as he convinces you to think he's at a certain place in the piece with 
the main theme, he surprises you by doing something different. 

The opening motif is the overly familiar hunting call figure. 



i 



E^ 



XT 



-O^ 



TJ 



XT 



Perhaps Haydn was appealing to his employer since hunting was one of the favorite sports of the 
Esterhazy princes. Haydn himself was an enthusiastic hunter. As a musician he probably 
listened carefully to the many traditional horn calls native to the region of the Esterhazy estates. 
This traditional fanfare for 2 horns summons us to attention and suggests a military/cavalier 
mood. Haydn used this typical hunting call pattern with great variety and ingenuity in this 
movement. This opening thought is barely finished when a series of chords in the cello and 
horns begins which becomes the accompaniment for the violins' rhythmic dance tune. 



24 



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r^r 



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Haydn's music is saturated with Croatian melodies. Some are actually Croatian folk songs, some 
are folk songs altered and improved but most were Haydn originals with the general 
characteristics of a Croatian folk song. The folk tune used here is "Dvorjcica potok gazi" a folk 
song common among Croats especially those of Haydn's district. 



Divorjcica potok gazi 




mzM 



p 



J f — f — f — -p — — 




K *? 




— L-J 


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You would not expect such a light little phrase to comprise an entire symphonic finale but it 
does, thereby providing a monothematic structure. Haydn creates many varied and beautifully 
cohesive episodes from a few notes of this simple melody. Where you might expect contrasting 
ideas Haydn recalls the old one, puts it in a new key, gives it to new instruments, extends, cuts, 
and combines it with other fragments. A later subtheme, actually the original theme in the key of 
B b , with greater harmonic rather than melodic interest, is worked out in a grand, contrapuntal 
manner. The main return to the E b recapitulation is not from the dominant B b , but from G major. 
The recapitulation has the trumpet joining the horn. 



CALL CHART 

Exposition 

00 Horns 

04 Silence 

06 Theme-horns and violins 

10 Clarinet 

13 Viola-cello-bass/violin conversation 

1 8 Long oboe, violin/cello-bass conversation 

24 Descending oboe and strings 

29 Wandering strings 

43 Theme-horns and strings 



25 



46 Clarinet 

49 Yiola-cello-bass/violin conversation 

54 Long oboe, violin/viola-cello-bass conversatio 

59 Strings-descending eighth notes 

1:02 Strings tiptoeing 

1 :08 Forte-tutti with timpani 

1:24 Timpani and stuttering strings, woodwinds and violins-descending eighth notes 

1:32 Timpani roll 

1:41 Cello-bass -> oboe -> flute -> oboe 

1 :48 Low strings-minor with bassoon countermelody 

2:01 Forte-tutti with timpani 

2:13 String question answered by woodwinds and timpani 

2:23 Silence 

Development 

2:25 Horns and violins 

2:29 Clarinet 

2:31 Viola-cello-bass/violin conversation 

2:37 Long oboe, string/clarinet conversation 

2:44 Descending oboe and strings 

2:47 Forte-tutti 

2:51 Timpani-brass-clarinet-bassoon-low strings/oboe-violin conversation 

3:01 Wandering strings 

3:10 Accents sf 

3:16 Timpani roll 

3:22 Upper strings-bassoon -> low strings-bassoon -> upper strings-oboe 

3:31 Low strings minor with bassoon countermelody 

3:39 Oboe, violins 

3:48 Timpani 

3:59 Silence 

Recapitulation 

4:01 Horns and violins 

4:05 Clarinet 

4:07 Passing theme around: timpani-brass-low strings -> flute-clarinet-high strings -> 

woodwinds-brass-low strings -> violins 

4:18 Timpani roll 

4:21 Hammering timpani 

4:29 Stuttering strings, violin and woodwind eighth notes 

4:40 Timpani roll 

4:5 1 Cello-bass -> oboe and horn -> clarinet -> oboe and horns 

4:58 Cello-bass minor with woodwind countermelody 

5:18 Cello-bass / violin-viola conversation 

5:28 Forte - tutti with timpani 

5:34 Second violin-flute /first violin-flute conversation, woodwinds & brass hunting call 

5:43 Timpani roll FINE 



26 



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27 



Hunt begins with clear 
blasts on the horn 



Fox flies across pasture 
giving the field the thrill 



of seeing him 



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Lose scent 



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Through a herd of sheep 
which slows the dogs 



Fox runs through tree 
trunk. Dogs follow. 



SIGHTING! Everyone 
holds out their hat at 
arm's length in the fox's 
direction 



A buck and three does 
charge out in front of the 
horses 



Horses' hooves send up 
a bevy of quail 



Dog "strikes" and other 
dogs honor her call 



Horses and riders ride 
out to the road to start 
the foxhunt 



Horses glide over stone 
fence. 



Into another cornfield, 
hounds thrash about 



Fox strolls out of 
cornfield and heads 
down to river 



Fox jumps creek and 
horses follow 



Hounds burst out of 
woods, into creek and 
up the opposite bank 



Horses canter through 
trees 



Horses come out into 
hayfield 



Fox shoots across 
hayfield 



Fox runs to den and 
dives in 



Huntmaster doesn't 
want his hounds to split 
so he goes to edge of 
field and calls hounds 



Cast (turn out) hounds 



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Horn signals the start of 
the hunt 



Hounds search for scent 



Hounds pick up hot 
scent 



Horses go at a ground- 
eating gallop 



Fox zigs to the right into 
a stand of trees leading 
down to the river 



Scent good and hounds 
give tongue 



me 



This fox used to being 
chased so runs straight 
then zigzags left up 
through the woods and 
out onto a plowed 
cornfield 



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There's another fox in 
the cornfield! 



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Dogs confused at two 
scents 



28 



SCORE — RHYTHM STICK ACTIVITY 



ntro (16) T 



J 
J 
J 



J 



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I M (2) 



J - 



J 
J 



J (6) 

! (7) 
J 



J J (8) 
J - J 



(9) 

J J 

(11) 

J II 

(11) 
(12) 

J J 

(3) - 

J II 

J II 



(4) 



J 



(4) 



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I * M (2) 

J II • 



J — J 



III (3) 



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Ml (2) 



J - 



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29 



I 



J J (4) 



J J (3) 

III J 



J 



J J (6) 
(22) 



J 
(11) 



J 



Mi (4) 



* I * (3) - 



J 



J 

J 



(4) • 

J 
J 

- (4) 
II (6) 

- (13) 
J (8) 

II (ID 

III | J 
II (11) 



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J. 
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J 



III (2) 



111 (3) 



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MM J J (6) 






MM (6) 






J - (5) 






MM (12) 






J - (3) 






STUDENT PATTERNS 






RED 






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(b) till J II 1 II 1 J II ( J — ) 






(c) till J J 






ORANGE 






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J II 


J II 


ALL 






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BLUE 






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GREEN 






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31 



Character Education 

Decide which character traits Haydn and others showed in the following statements. 

Choose from: 

A. citizenship E. fairness 

B. compassion F. honesty 

C. cooperation G. respect 

D. determination H. responsibility 

1. After his second trip to England the King of England asked him to stay there 

permanently. Haydn declined because of his to Prince Esterhazy. 

2. Ate with musicians and set an example of good manners "abstaining from 

vulgarity in eating, drinking and conversation." 

3. Despite his fame he never stepped out of the role of a perfect musical servant at 

Esterhaza. 

4. French soldiers occupying Vienna sang one of Haydn's own songs to him to calm 

him. 

5. Had a sweet, kind disposition. He made no enemies at any time. 

6. Had integrity. 

7. Job description: It is expressly laid down that whenever the orchestra is required 

to play on social occasions the vice Kapellmeister and all the musicians in his 
orchestra will wear livery, and the said Joseph Haydn must see that both he 
himself and all his musicians will obey the regulations and appear in white 
stocking, white linen and powdered hair, either tied in a bow or with a wig. The 
said Joseph Haydn will present himself daily in the antechamber before the after 
noon, to receive instruction from His Highness as to whether or not the 
orchestra's service will be requested. After receiving his orders, he will 
communicate them to the other musicians and see that they are punctually carried 
out. 

8. Job description: Joseph Haydn will be considered and treated as a member of the 

family. 

9. Job description: You will behave in a manner befitting an honourable official in 

a nobleman's establishment. 

10. Librarian of the music and custodian of the instruments 

11. Liked to be well dressed. 



32 



12. Practiced violin by scraping two sticks together. 

13. Presented one opera and two long concerts each week as well as special operas 

and concerts for visitors and daily chamber music in prince Esterhazy's private 
apartment in which the prince usually joined in. 

14. Prince Esterhazy showed this by allowing the musicians to take a vacation. 

15. Wanted to be a student of Porpora so he became his personal servant. 

1 6. Was a patient and persistent worker. 

17. Was even-tempered, industrious, and generous with a good sense of humor. 

18. Went to England for a series of concerts but spoke no English. 

19. What he wanted the audience to show at concerts instead of falling asleep. 

20. Wrote oratorios like The Creation because he was motivated by his admiration 

for Handel's Messiah. 

21 . Wrote the Austrian National Anthem. 

22. Wrote the Farewell Symphony to convince Prince Esterhazy the musicians 

needed a vacation. 

Math Integration - EOG Style Questions 

1. Haydn's orchestra usually includes 28 players. If % of the orchestra is 
woodwind instruments, how many woodwinds are there? 

A. 9 B. 7 C. 6 D. 4 

2. The North Carolina Symphony will have 3 flutes in the orchestra. If 1/3 of the 
flutes are needed to play the fourth movement of Haydn's Symphony 103, how 
many flutes will they use? 

A. 4 B. 3 C. 2 D. 1 

3. The North Carolina Symphony will have 4 horns in the orchestra. If '/i of the 
horns are needed to play the fourth movement of Haydn's Symphony 103, how 
many will they use? 

A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. 5 

4. The North Carolina Symphony wants to decrease the time they spend rehearsing. 
They now spend 2 2/5 hours a day rehearsing. If they decrease their time, how 
much time could they spend rehearsing? 

A. 2 1/4 hours B. 2 4/6 hours C. 2 3/7 hours D. 2 3/5 hours 



33 



5. The North Carolina Symphony performed for l A an hour. If they played longer 
for the next concert, how long could they perform? 

A. 2/5 B. 5/12 C. 5/9 D. 1/3 

6. Which number sentence could solve the following problem? 

There are 1 1 first violins and 8 second violins in the orchestra. How many more 

first violins are there than second violins? 

A. 11+8=19 B. 8-11=3 C. 11-8 = 3 D. 19-11 = 8 

7. Which number sentence could solve the following problem? 

There are 10 woodwind players in the orchestra. Only 7 of them are needed for 
the fourth movement of Haydn's Symphony 103. How many woodwind players 
are not needed? 
A. 10-7 = 3 B. 17-0 = 7 C. 10 + 7=17 D. 7-10 = 3 

8. Which of the following best describes the edge of the timpani? 
A. circumference B. radius C. diameter D. center 

9. Which of the following best describes the outside edge of the top of a snare drum? 

A. diameter B. center C. radius D. circumference 

10. What is the diameter of a timpani head with a 15" radius? 
A. 15" B. 20" C. 25" D. 30" 

1 1. It takes the North Carolina Symphony 2 V 2 hours to drive to your concert. If they 

want to stop l A way through for a break, how many hours should they drive 
before stopping? 
A. 3 A hour B. 1 hour C. 1 l A hours D. 1 Vi hours 

12. The North Carolina Symphony is going to the Outer Banks to play in June. What 

is the most likely temperature in Celsius? 
A. 20° B. 28° C. 60° D. 120° 

13. The North Carolina Symphony is going to Asheville to play in January. What is 

the most likely temperature in Celsius? 
A. 62° B. 55° C. 40° D. -15° 

14. The local Symphony Guild is planning to feed the orchestra and conductor (64 
people) turkey sandwiches for lunch. Each sandwich requires a quarter pound of 
turkey. How many pounds of turkey should the Guild buy? 

A. 256 B. 64 C. 60 D. 16 

15. The stage manager is setting up the chairs on the stage. He puts the first row 3 

feet from the conductor. The second row was 6 feet from the conductor, the third 
row was 9 feet from the conductor, and the fourth row was 12 feet from the 

conductor. If the pattern continues, how far away would the sixth row be? 

A. 15 B. 18 C. 21 D. 24 



34 



16. The North Carolina Symphony will play a 6-month tour and give 132 concerts 

along the way. What is the average number of concerts they will give each 
month? 
A. 2.6 B. 22 C. 206 D. 260 

17. Mr. Curry the conductor of the orchestra has listened to 120 CD's in ten days. 
What is the average number of CD's he heard per day? 

A. 12 B. 102 C. 120 D. 212 

18. The bus driver needs to fill up the bus with diesel fuel before the symphony 

leaves. At which gas station will he get the best deal? 

A. Station A: 3 gallons for $3.75 

B. Station B: 10 gallons for $12.10 

C. Station C: 15 gallons for $18.30 

D. Station D: 20 gallons for $24.60 

19. Look at the ages of some people in the orchestra: first violin-58, flute-57, trumpet- 
55, timpani-48, cello-41, second violin-36, oboe-35, trombone-21, 
percussion-3 1 . What is the mean age? 

5 | 578 

4 1 18 

3 I 156 

2 1 1 
Who is the person whose age shows the median? 
A. First violin B. First flute C. Cello D. Percussion 

20. Carla has 3 shirts and 2 pants. How many different shirt-pants combinations 

can she make? 

A. 3 B. 4 C. 5 D. 6 

21. Andrew has 5 shirts and 3 pairs of pants. How many different shirt-pants 
combinations can Andrew make? 

A. 15 B. 8 C. 5 D. 2 

22. Suzanne wrote each of the 9 letters of the word "orchestra" on a separate card. 
Then she placed all the cards in a bag. If Suzanne pulled one card out of the bag, 
what is the probability, she would pick a card with the letter "R" on it? 
A. 9/9 B. 2/9 C. 1/9 D. 1/8 



Personnel for the North Carolina Symphony: 

Flutes (3), oboe (3), clarinet (2), bassoon (2), horn (4), trumpet (2), trombone (3), 

timpani (1), percussion (2) 

First violins (11), second violins (8), violas (8), cello (8), bass (5) 

35 



Math/Technology Integration 

Make a time line of Haydn's life. For a technology integration use a program such as 

TimeLiner. 

Haydn and George Washington were both born in 1732. Make a time line that includes 
events in both their lives. 

Make a time line of Haydn's life and important dates in America history between 1732 
and 1809. 

Using a spreadsheet program, make a pie graph showing the number of players in the 
families of instruments in the orchestra. Orchestral specifications for the North Carolina 
Symphony and for a typical Haydn orchestra can be found elsewhere in this article. 

Science Integration 

These scientists were alive during Haydn's time. Find out what they discovered or 
accomplished: 

Joseph Priestly John Dalton Antoine Laurnet Lavoisier 

Count Alessandro Volta Eli Whitney James Watt 

Edward Jenner 

Art Integration 

These artists were alive during Haydn's time. Find out some of their famous works. 

Thomas Gainsborough Gilbert Stuart 

Jeane Antoine John Trumbull 

Pierre Charles L' Enfant Charles Bulfinch 



Social Studies Integration-George Washington 

Use the following information about George Washington and information about Haydn 
provided previously to compare the two men. Use a double bubble map or a Venn 
diagram to show what they have in common. 

George Washington, the "Father of our Country" guided America like a father leads a 
child. The people loved Washington. 

He was born into a wealthy, hardworking, religious Virginia family on February 22, 
1732. His father ran an ironworks. After his father died in 1743 he went to live with his 
half brother at Mount Vernon. He went to school until he was about 14 or 15 studying 
arithmetic, history and geography. 

Washington was 6 feet, 2 inches tall with a large, straight nose and blue-gray eyes. He 
wore his hair in a ponytail. He had a large mouth with imperfect teeth. He followed his 



36 



own rules of conduct but he also enjoyed listening to jokes and having a good time. He 
was very patient and understanding. 

His first job was as a surveyor. Later he joined the militia and fought in the French and 
Indian War. After the war he returned home to farm at Mount Vernon and was happily 
married to Martha Dandridge Custis. He served 15 years in the legislature at 
Williamsburg before returning to Mount Vernon. He worked hard running the plantation 
but he also enjoyed foxhunts that were accompanied by dinners, dancing and games. 

After the Boston Tea Party protest, Washington and 6 other delegates formed the First 
Continental Congress. He was elected commander in chief at the Second Continental 
Congress. Eight years of war followed. He was plagued by discouragement, desertion, 
and shortage of supplies but eventually he defeated the British. His soldiers wanted to 
make him king but he declined. 

He returned to Mount Vernon and farming until 1789 when he was elected president. 
The Executive Mansion in Philadelphia was one of the finest houses in the city. He was 
reelected to the presidency in 1 793 and retired to Mount Vernon after his second term. A 
horseback ride in the snow in 1 799 caused a sore throat that swelled so badly that he was 
unable to breathe. He died and was buried at Mount Vernon. Thousands of Americans 
mourned his death. 

Technology Resources 

LearnNC 

http://www.learnnc.org 

Lesson Plans - 5 grade - Internet Music Detectives 

Sources for information about Haydn (and other composers) 
http://www.google.com/search?q=hadvn&btnG=Google+Search 

http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/2499/Hadvn.html 

http://w3 .rz-berlin.mgp.de/cmp/havdni .html 

(The Classical Music pages: http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/classmus.html ) 

Composer of the Month 
http://cnet.unb.ca/achn/kodalv/koteach/resources/compmonviv.html 

HyperStudio Project 

This project will integrate technology (multimedia) and music (history and culture, 
specifically the life and music of Franz Joseph Haydn). Students should already be 
familiar with HyperStudio before attempting this. They should be given a rubric of 
expectations for the presentation. 

Students will research Haydn using the Internet (NCWiseOwl and The Classical Music 
Pages are good sites), other reference resources (including the North Carolina Symphony 

37 



Student Book) and other available materials to complete a HyperStudio planning sheet. 
This planning sheet should include the text and musical examples that will be used in 4-6 
cards. Students would then create a HyperStudio stack using the rubric for guidelines. 



Expository Writing to Explain Why 

Prompt: Haydn wanted a violin when he was young, 
give reasons why you should have a violin. 



Pretend you are Joseph Haydn and 



Prompt: The King of England invited Haydn to stay in England after his second visit 
there. Pretend you are the King of England and give reasons why Haydn should stay. 

Prompt: Haydn conducted the orchestra at the Esterhazy palace. Pretend you are Joseph 
Haydn and give reasons why musicians should come to play in the orchestra there. 

Prompt: Haydn needs more instruments and musicians for his orchestra. Persuade Prince 
Esterhazy by giving reasons why you need these added instruments and players. 

Prompt: Virtuoso instrumentalists wanted to come play in Haydn's orchestra. Pretend 

you are one of these instrumentalists and give reasons why Haydn could use you in the 

orchestra. 

Expository Writing Based on "Write From the Beginning" Model 

Prompt: The North Carolina Symphony will perform for our fifth graders. Think about 
conducting the orchestra. Give reasons why you would like to do this. 

Brainstorm: 

Write "why I want to conduct the orchestra" in the center of the circle map. In the 

outside circle think of reasons why you would like to conduct the orchestra. 




38 



Writing Sequence 

Choose your best reasons why you would like to conduct. Write your reasons in the 
order of importance on the flow map. Write an opening paragraph that states the prompt 
and mentions that you have reasons to support it. 



I would like to conduct 
the orchestra. 



Privilege 



Be like my father 



Unforgettable experience 



Add Explanations and Examples: 

Under each box in the flow map, explain what you mean and give an example. 



I would like to 
conduct the orchestra. 



Privilege 



honor 

represent my school 
reward for being 
good student 



Be like my father 



Unforgettable experience 



conducts church choir 
play piano and visualize 

conducting 
I wish that was me 



be a part of the music 
life adventure 
pretend conducting 



Add transition words: 

Decide on good transition words and phrases that could be used to move from one reason 

to the next. Write these words or phrases on top of the boxes of the flow map. 



I would like to 
conduct the orchestra. 



T 



First of all 



Also 



Privilege 



Be like my father 



honor 

represent my school 
reward for being 
good student 



conducts church choir 
play piano and visualize 

conducting 
I wish that was me 



Finally 



Unforgettable experience 



be a part of the music 
life adventure 
pretend conducting 



Closing Paragraph: 



39 



The closing paragraph should be at least two sentences. It should restate the prompt and 
the three reasons that support the prompt. 



I would like to 
conduct the orchestra. 



First of all 



Privilege 



honor 

represent my school 
reward for being a 
good student 



Also 



Be like my father 



conducts church choir 
play piano and visualize 

conducting 
I wish that was me 



Finally 



Unforgettable experience 



be a part of the music 
life adventure 
pretend conducting 



I would like to conduct 
The orchestra for three 
reasons. It would be a 
a privilege, I would be 
like my father and it 
would be an 
unforgettable experience. 



Mentally rehearse: 

Mentally follow the flow map and plan what you are going to write. 

Write: 

Write your story using the flow map. 

(Mapping based on expository writing of Granite Quarry student Abby Brown.) 



40 



Word Scramble 

Fill in the blanks with the correct answers. Use the letters in the boxes to answer the final 
question. 



1. One of the first instruments Haydn learned to play 



2. Symphony No. 103 is also known as the 



Symphony. 



3. The city where Haydn sang in the choir at St. Stephen's Cathedral 



4. Haydn's employer for thirty years 



5. A person who writes music 



6. Another name for kettledrum 



Who was Haydn's closest friend? 



41 



Bibliography 

Dowries, Edward. Guide to Symphonic Music . New York: Walker and Company, 1 98 1 . 

Goulding, Phil G. Classical Music . New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1992. 

Geiringer, Karl. Norton Critical Scores-Haydn Symphony No. 103 in E b (Drumroll) . 
New York: W. W. Norton and Co., Inc., 1974. 

Haas, Karl. Inside Music . Garden City: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1984. 

Hagy, David. Personal interview. 1 3 April, 200 1 . 

"Joseph Haydn." URL: http://w3.rz-berlin.mgp.de/cmp/havdni.html 

Schonberg, Harold C. The Lives of the Great Composers (Revised ed). New York: 
W. W. Norton and Company, 1981. 



Susan Trivette has taught K-5 music at Granite Quarry Elementary in Rowan County 
and been a member of the flute section of the Salisbury Symphony for 25 years. She is 
also organist at First United Church of Christ in Salisbury and on the staff of the 
community music program at Catawba College. 



42 



OVERTURE TO NABUCCO 

Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901) 

About the Composer 

Giuseppe Verdi once declared, "I am and always will be a Roncole peasant." From the 
very beginning, he is said to have had a serious outlook on life. During the year of his 
birth to Carlo Verdi, a modest village innkeeper and Luigia Uttini, a spinner, Napoleon 
Ill's years of political domination were coming to an end. These were times of great 
unrest and upheaval. The story is told of an invasion by Russians and Austrians who 
swept through the little village of Roncole where the Verdi family lived, savagely 
butchering as many inhabitants as possible, including women and children. Many women 
were slain while attempting to hide in the village church. One of them, with a child only a 
few months old, managed to sneak into the church's belfry by way of a narrow winding 
staircase, escaping the dangerous attack. Fortunately for the world, that young mother 
held in her arms the future composer of Nabucco, Aida, Rigoletto, Otello and Falstaff- 
little Giuseppe! 

Verdi possessed tremendous talent, but he was not born to educated, intellectual or 
musical parents. He had no early opportunities to hear or learn about music except in 
church or from itinerant fiddlers. At the age of seven he became an acolyte in the village 
church, and one day became so absorbed in the music for the Mass that he forgot to hand 
the priest the holy water. For his lack of attention to important matters, the priest kicked 
the young Verdi down the altar stairs where he landed, pale and bleeding, at the bottom! 
His parents asked him what was the matter, but he only replied, "Let me learn music." 

Verdi's father responded by buying him an old spinet, upon which Verdi quickly played 
some beautiful sounds. When he couldn't find those same sounds later, he pounded the 
instrument with a hammer! A kindly tuner and repairman named Stephen Cavalletti tuned 
and repaired the instrument at no charge because he admired the talent seen in this young 
student. The story is a famous Verdi anecdote - the tuner actually pasted a piece of paper 
inside the spinet stating that the work was done at no charge due to "how well disposed 
the young Giuseppe Verdi is to learn to play this instrument." Verdi kept and treasured 
the old spinet, even in the days of his great prosperity later in life. 

Young Giuseppe was trained by the church organist Pietro Baistrocchi in the village of 
Roncole. By age ten, he went to Busseto, a larger town with more cultural opportunities 
for his education. A Busseto patron of the arts Antonio Barezzi helped Verdi continue his 
studies. Ferdinando Provesi from Parma taught him music and the canon Antonio Seletti 
taught him Latin. 

Barezzi 's patronage prompted Verdi to apply for admission to the Milan Conservatory. 
Since he was older (by then) than the average age for admission, 14, he had to take a 
special entrance exam. Verdi failed this exam - the instructors claimed that his piano 
skills were inadequate, his hand position was poor, and he lacked the technical 
knowledge of composition needed to study at the Conservatory. 



43 



Depressed at this rejection but refusing to give up, Verdi turned to private study with 
Vincenzo Lavigna, piano maestro at La Scala. Verdi immersed himself in opera during 
these years, attending every performance possible, absorbing the drama and the 
compositional techniques of this art form. The Milan of Verdi's day was heavily 
influenced by Austrian domination. Classical Viennese music, particularly string quartets, 
was the repertoire heard most often. Verdi listened, absorbed, and worked tirelessly on 
counterpoint, canon and fugue forms. He remained in Milan from 1832 to 1835 and 
married Barezzi's daughter Margherita on May 4, 1836. They had two children. 

Verdi was director of the local music school in Busetto while composing his first opera, 
Oberto, conte di San Bonifacio. This opera was produced in Milan at the Scalia Theatre 
on November 17, 1839 and was hailed "an encouraging success." 

The year 1840 was a tragic year in Verdi's life. First his son, then his daughter were 
stricken with a mysterious illness, dying in their mother's arms. Next, his wife 
Margherita was diagnosed with a violent inflammation of the brain and died. Within two 
months' time, his entire family was gone, and he had just been assigned to write a comic 

opera! 

Needless to say, the opera titled Un giorno di regno (A Reign of a Day) was a fiasco. 
Verdi resolved, in depression and grief, never to compose again. Fortunately, this 
resolution was abolished by a savvy director who slipped a libretto by Solera into Verdi's 
coat pocket on the subject of Nebuchadnezzar. Verdi simply could not resist this topic, 
and agreed to tackle this interesting project. 

The time was right in Italy for the premiere of Nabucco. Rossini had just laid down his 
compositional pen, and the sentimental predictability of Donizetti and Bellini was 
growing weary on Italian ears. Not that Italian opera-lovers were tired of sentimentality - 
they were just hungry for a fresh, new, exciting twist on this beloved characteristic. Verdi 
supplied this new excitement - coarse though it might have been in places - and the 
public responded. 

The Italians adopted the Hebrew prisoners' chorus from Nabucco, titled "Va pensiero 
sull' ali dorate" (Fly thought, on golden wings) as a battle cry for freedom from Austrian 
domination. Legend has it that when Verdi took the libretto booklet out of his coat pocket 
on that fateful day, it opened to this page when he threw it on the table. The words seized 
his imagination, impelling him to read the whole story at once. This number instantly 
became the most popular chorus in the opera. 

Following Nabucco's tremendous success, Verdi produced operas in fast succession: 

ILombardi (1843); Ernani (1844); I due Foscari (1844) ; Giovanna d'Arco (1845); 
Alzira (1 845); Attila (1846); Macbeth, I Masnadieri and Jerusalem (all in 1847); // 
Corsaro (1848); La Battaglia di Legano (1849); Luisa Miller (1849); Stiffelio (1850) 



44 



As the waves of success from the first production of Nabucco carried Verdi's 
compositional career to the stratosphere, the romantic interest of the production's leading 
soprano Guiseppina Strepponi carried his heart over the moon as well. He married her on 
August 29, 1859. 

Verdi's signature works, Rigoletto, II Trovatore and La Traviata were produced during 
the early 1850s. These 3 works established Verdi's reputation. Verdi had tried to avoid 
political involvement during his career as a composer. However, during these years of 
political strife, Verdi had become involved in the Italian struggle for independence. His 
choice of subject matter for his next grand opera, Un ballo in maschera, had to be re- 
worked. The description of an assassination plot against Gustav III of Sweden had to be 
shifted to Massachusetts, U.S.A. and to Governor Riccardo of Boston. (This shift was 
forced due to recent attempts on the life on Napoleon III.) Verdi's admirers linked 
Riccardo 's name to that of Victor Emmanuel, future king of Italy. The cry "Viva Verdi!" 
was an acronym for "Viva Vittorio Emmanuele Re D' Italia!" 

Aida, another signature work of the now-famous Verdi, showed a new level of orchestral 
composition technique. In Aida, the orchestra is a vital element in the drama, going far 
beyond serving as mere accompaniment. The Requiem followed in his long list of 
compositions, and then Othello (an opera after Shakespeare) and his last opera Falstaff 
(based on Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor). Verdi was in his 80s when this 
work was produced. The opera reveals a genius for subtle comedy and a symphonic-style 
orchestral score. 

Verdi was a well-rounded individual. In addition to being a world-famous composer, he 
was an excellent businessman. In his last years, he managed several properties, arranging 
for the farming and marketing of his crops. His legacy was the establishment of a 
retirement home for aging musicians in Milan, which he called "my most beautiful 
work." Verdi's death on January 27, 1901 truly marked the end of an era in Italian music. 

In all of his years of composing, Verdi never abandoned the basic Italian operatic style 
where clear separation of aria, recitative and chorus were the rule. Purists among Italian 
opera audiences feared the "cloudy" influence of Wagner on their composers. Music 
critics have hailed Verdi's melodic construction as his greatest gift, saying that his 
melodies have universal appeal. However, as the twentieth century dawned, musical 
tastes around the world began to change, hailing Wagner, Liszt and their contemporaries 
as the ultimate in musical expression. The music of Verdi was no longer featured in opera 
houses during these years of change. A movement back to Verdi began in the 1950s (the 
50 th anniversary of Verdi's death in 1951 was a springboard for this) with many festivals 
and concerts given around the world. This year, 2001, marks the centennial of Verdi's 
death, and a worldwide emphasis on the performance of Verdi's works is underway to 
commemorate the most famous of all Italian composers who is still admired around the 
world. 



45 



About the Opera Nabucco 

Xabucco's twist on the story of King Nebuchadnezzar reflects Verdi's pessimism about 
life (the old "Never trust anyone - everyone is out to get you" idea) and his interest in 
father-daughter relationships. Although Verdi did not write the libretto, he was intensely 
attracted to this story, and this is an interesting facet of his personality. 

In Act I the Israelites in Jerusalem are bemoaning their fate: the Assyrians, led by 
Nabucco (King Nebuchadnezzar) are destroying and desecrating their city. Zaccaria 
(Zacharius, the high priest of Jerusalem) has Nabucco's daughter Fenena (a hostage of 
the Jews). He is confident that peace will return and the Lord will not forsake them. 
Ismaele, nephew of the King of Jerusalem and leader of their military forces, enters to tell 
everyone that the destruction continues. Zaccaria, praying for a miracle, turns Fenena 
over to Ismaele for safekeeping. 

How convenient this is, since we then discover that Ismaele and Fenena are in love! 
Unfortunately, Abigalle, Fenena's "alleged" sister (I say "alleged" because we later 
discover they aren't related!) loves Ismaele, too. She enters the scene, bringing a band of 
Assyrian soldiers disguised as Hebrews, to occupy the temple. She attempts to strike a 
deal with Ismaele, which he refuses to accept. Nabucco enters, Zaccaria denounces his 
blasphemy and threatens to kill Fenena if he doesn't change, but Ismaele delivers Fenena 
to her father (against his own people's wishes). By now, Nabucco is enraged and orders 
Soloman's temple plundered and burned. 

Act II opens in Nabucco's palace in Babylon with Abigalle finding a parchment that 
claims she is the child of slaves. She plots vengeance against her father Nabucco and on 
his heir to the throne, Fenena. The High Priest of Baal enters, saying that Fenena has 
committed treason by freeing the Hebrew slaves, and the religious leaders have decided 
to offer Abigalle the throne instead. 

Meanwhile, Zaccaria still prays for the Assyrians to cast out their false idols. He plans to 
convert his Assyrian prisoner Fenena first. After Fenena's conversion to the Hebrew 
religion, the outcast Ismaele receives a pardon (for saving a fellow Hebrew). Palace 
advisor Abdallo enters, alarmed, saying rumors are flying about Nabucco's death and that 
Fenena is in danger. But before Fenena can escape, Abigalle and the Assyrians enter, 
demanding that Fenena give Abigalle the royal scepter. When she refuses, out of the blue 
comes Nabucco, grabbing the crown and placing it on his own head! (So much for the 
stories of his death!) Nabucco proclaims himself as god, orders everyone to bow before 
him, is struck by lightning and rendered insane. Abigalle retrieves the crown, blown off 
his head by the impact of the lightning. 

Act HI takes place in the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. Everyone hails Abigalle as ruler, 
but she tells Nabucco she is only a temporary regent since he is not well enough to rule. 
She tricks him into signing a warrant ordering Fenena's death. After he signs the paper, 
he remembers his daughter and inquires about her. "She will die!" announces Abigalle. 
Nabucco frantically searches for the document saying that Abigalle is not his biological 



46 



daughter, but she finds it first and rips it to shreds right in his face. The Hebrews, resting 
by the banks of the Euphrates, express thoughts "on golden wings" of their lost 
homeland. Zaccaria maintains they will prevail, and that the Lord will deliver them from 
captivity. 

Nabucco awakens to see his daughter Fenena being led to her execution in Act IV. He 
tries to escape from his room, but realizes he is a prisoner. Desperate, he prays to Jehovah 
for forgiveness, pledging to convert himself and his people. His sanity returns, he is 
released by Abdallo and grabs his sword, rallying to regain the throne. He reaches the 
Hanging Gardens just in time to stop Fenena's execution, and orders the statue of Baal 
destroyed. The statue falls of its own accord and shatters. Abigalle confesses her crimes 
and poisons herself, praying to the God of Israel to pardon her as she dies. Nabucco tells 
the Israelites to return to their homeland and rebuild their temple, declaring that he now 
serves Jehovah. The crowd, acknowledging the miracle that has occurred, offers praises 
to God as the opera closes. 

Ideas for sharing Overture to Nabucco with Students 

The basic plot of Nabucco certainly contains themes that are violent. It is not necessary to 
present the opera's story in graphic detail to introduce students to the wonderful music 
and fascinating interweaving of themes in the Overture. As teachers, we need to know 
"the whole story," but we can edit the plot to fit the "tolerance level" of our students and 
communities. One suggestion is to begin with a geography correlation - locate the city of 
Jerusalem on a world map. Explain that the opera Nabucco, from which this overture 
comes, was set in the year 587 B.C. 



Geography Curriculum Correlation: (Classroom Activity) 

1. Draw a map of the country and area surrounding the city of Jerusalem. 

2. Write a paragraph describing the climate, geographic features, and defining 
characteristics of modern-day Jerusalem. How do these findings compare to the 
state of Jerusalem in 587 B.C. when the city was destroyed by the Assyrians? 



Introduction to Operatic Style (from North Carolina DPI Standards, Music 
Education) 

Assemble 2 or 3 recordings of current popular music from your students' list of favorites. 
After checking to be certain that your choices are "G" rated, play 15-30 seconds of each 
song and ask your students to comment on musical characteristics (melody, rhythm, vocal 
style, type of accompaniment, etc.). Next, play 30 seconds or so of a recording of an 
operatic aria. Discuss the following questions: 

1 . Do "pop" singers ever sound like this? 

2. What type of music did you hear? (Most will immediately say "Opera! Yuk!") 

3. What qualities of an operatic voice are different from the voices of Destiny's 
Child, the Backstreet Boys, or other groups you might hear on MTV? 



47 



(Operatic voices use vibrato - explain what vibrato is; operatic voices have a 
richer tone color, they are often not amplified, the music they sing is more 
difficult, they use the extreme reaches of their range, their voices are bigger, 
their voices have power to "hurt your ears" even without a microphone, etc.). 
4. Discuss the basic vocabulary of opera : overture, aria, recitative, act, scene, 
costumes, props, scenery, chorus, and libretto (the "Big Ten Terms of 
Opera"). 



Now to the Sound! 

Music is all about sound that is artistically arranged - about sound that evokes a response 
in all of us. Prepare your students to respond to the themes in the Overture to Nabucco. 
For many elementary listeners, this is their only repeated exposure to this style of music. 
If we teachers break this 7-minute or so composition into recognizable portions, students 
will really like it in spite of themselves because they will understand a bit of how it's put 
together. 

Since Verdi the composer was famous for his beautiful melodies, I have lifted 7 
prominent "melodic snippets" (or themes, if you will) which students can be taught to 
recognize. These themes are included in this study guide in notation form to be played on 
Orff instruments, piano, keyboard, or simply sung (using "la," solfege, or letter names). 
The names I have given them are not from anyone's music theory book - they simply 
describe the fragments so that students can name them when they hear them. The short 
names are inscribed on "Nabucco's Coins" (also included following the themes). 

If your music class time is limited, concentrate on the themes leading up to the "Va, 
pensiero" theme (labeled "Andantino") the first time you work with the music itself. I 
call these 3 themes "Andante" (picture of temple on coin), "Question & Answer" (battle 
scene) and "Andantino" (Prisoner's Chorus melody). If you copy a set of these coins for 
each student, they may cut the coins out and hold up the coin that corresponds to the 
theme they hear as the piece progresses. Some teachers might want to laminate a set for 
each child, let them punch holes in the tops and make a "Hebrew Listening Necklace" 
with yarn (to wear when listening to Nabucco -just hold up the coin which matches the 
section playing at that time). Another idea is to let children color the coins, cut them out 
and glue them to a crown to wear after they've been successful at identifying the 7 theme 
fragments presented in this lesson - they can earn the rank "Music Listening King or 
Queen"! Nabucco needn't be the only royalty in this situation! 

A listening goal for your students could be to recognize the 7 themes in this lesson guide 
and to respond by holding up the coin which names the theme playing when the teacher 
gives a signal (such as touching his/her temple or ear, as if trying to think of the name of 
the theme.) Coins must be held up silently for the students to receive credit for their 
answers (this encourages active listening, not talking.) Another listening goal might be 
for small groups of 3-4 students to listen to Overture from Nabucco together, from start to 
finish, demonstrating the ability to identify the themes taught without prompting. 



48 



Other listening games might include: 1) Giving each student a small square of red and 
green construction paper (both colors taped together) and having them hold the red side 
up when the music is played slowly (or at a constant speed) and the green side up when 
the tempo speeds up. 2) Have students stand when they hear the "Andantino" theme 
("Va, pensiero" chorus) - this is one melody they can easily recognize since they are 
singing this chorus on the symphony program. 3) While playing the Overture, allow 
students to walk silently around the room until the music pauses - at that point, everyone 
freezes, and the teacher ask a child to name the theme that was playing at the pause. If 
he/she guesses correctly, they are the "King/Queen" and get to pick the next child to give 
answers when the music is paused again. 

The point of these listening activities and games is to promote cooperative learning - to 
have every single child acquire these skills. Let the classes you teach know that when 
you've caught every one of them hearing these themes and recognizing them, the entire 
class is the "winner." Recognize the entire class with a homemade certificate to hang on 
their door, a sticker for everyone, a crown cutout to hang on their door - it doesn't have 
to be expensive to be meaningful. 

Additional Activities to Use with Multiple Intelligences Approaches 
Kinesthetic - Have students stand in a circle (shoes off if possible). Begin playing a few 
minutes of the recording of Overture to Nabucco. Ask students how they would keep a 
balloon afloat while listening to the different themes - how would they move on the slow, 
quiet parts? On the staccato, lively parts? On the really strong sections? Tell them that in 
order for the class to win this game, no one must make a sound, everyone must have 
touched the balloon at least once, and the balloon must not touch the ground even once 
during the playing of the piece. Ask the children to move "with" the mood of the music, 
using a variety of balloon-tapping styles. Get the balloon in the "ready" position, start the 
recording, and enjoy the fun! 

Artistic - Make a copy of the Verdi coloring sheet for every student. Let them color the 
ideas in Verdi's mind while listening to Overture to Nabucco. On the back of the sheet, 
they may draw another "idea balloon" and sketch the ideas the music gives them . 

Interpersonal - Let students write reflections on how the Israelites felt when Nabucco 
destroyed their place of worship. They might glue these reflections to scrolls made of 
brown construction paper and sticks. Students may use poetry (especially Haiku forms) to 
express their feelings. 

Mathematical - Conduct an Internet search for the actual floor plan and dimensions of 
Soloman's Temple in Jerusalem. Draw the temple, to scale, on graph paper. This activity 
covers geometry skills as well as linear measurement and plan-reading. 

Intrapersonal - Have a team of students (4 or 5) plan a MTV dramatization of a section 
(or all!) of Overture to Nabucco. They may cast themselves as characters in the opera 
(king, soldier, king's daughters, etc.) or may cast themselves as dancers. Plenty of acting 
and moving to the music is permitted, but NO DIALOGUE ALLOWED! If you have 



49 



access to a video camera, produce a music video for other classes to view and critique. 
This activity requires the students to engage in some serious non-verbal communication if 
their drama is to "jive" with the music. 



THEMES FROM OVERTURE TO NABUCCO 



Andante (Brass Chorus) 
Andante 



feS 



m 



& 



pp 



p 



Key: A major 



y 



i jyj? 



pi 



Question & Answer (Battle - sotto voce) 



Allegro 



sotto voce 



[answer] 



s 



E 



H3E 



o # 



Key: A minor 



"Va pensiero" Andantino 



Andantino 



m 



WW 



3 3 






if 



Key: F major 



m 



ji|j!_nr! 



K *y efc. 



50 



Themes from Nabucco. Cont. 



Triumphant (Crown) 



* 



> 



m i a 



> 



fe 



zz 



> 



> 



Secondary Theme (Suddenly quiet - Shhh!) 



h 



J1U > i J1U ^ ^ 



^^ 



aciszzat 



i?P 



| tf ^ * i [j i J j i «n 



Brilliante 



-o- 



fe 



pr*fUf *rl* J* Jll 



ff 



dim. 



Whimsical Theme (Winds) 



> 



1 1 1 r r i r 



4e 



3E=t 



^ 



(reference to A major) 



# 



£i 



i=¥ 



S 



si 






51 



CALL CHART FOR OVERTURE TO NABUCCO 



Time elapsed 


Measure numbers 


0:00-1:02 


1-16 


0:58-1:26 


16-23 


1:27-1:55 


24-50 


2:04-2:17 


51-54 


2:18-3:02 


55-70 


3:03-3:46 


71-98 


3:52-4:48 


99-107 


Pause 




4:49-5:06 


108-134 


4:59-5:19 


135-154 


5:20-5:37 


155-178 


5:38-5:48 


179-194 


5:49-5:56 


194-203 


5:57-6:07 


204-218 


5:56-6:00 


219-225 


6:01-6:13 


226 - 244 


6:14-6:29 


245 - 269 


6:30-6:46 


270 - 300 


6:47-6:50 


301-308 


6:51-7:07 


309-329 



Description of music 

Andante brass chorus Key: A 

Maestoso, 5-note theme 

ff at measure 9 

ascending chromatic scales 

(the "hook" - transition) 

Allegro staccato - sotto voce 

a minor theme (Q and A) 

horn calls: transition 

Andante (as beginning) 

brass - half cadence to new key (F) 

Andantino - variation of "Va, pensiero, 

sull'ali dorate" (Prisoner's Chorus) 

oboe - clarinet duet, pizzacato strings 

"B" section 

Closing section (Codetta) 

Allegro - brisk d minor 

Theme from m. 24 returns 

Triumphant D Major 

tempo bolts forward! 

Flutes, oboes and violins carry main theme 

subito pianissimo secondary theme 

grows to forte 3 rd time 

Theme "brilliante" 

F# G F# E D C# etc. descending scale 

transition 

"Whimsical theme" (in winds) 

bridge 

return of M. 135 "Triumphant" theme 

return of subito pianissimo secondary theme 

from m. 155 - plays 3 times 

Piu mosso - tempo bolts forward again 

theme from m. 24 reappears in major - 

carries D major tonality through to end 

Closing theme D D# D# D# D# E F# E D 

Coda D C# "switch-off 



52 



THEME FROM "BRASS CHORUS" (opening) 
Transposed to C - for use on Orff instruments 



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53 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Anderson, James. The Complete Dictionary of Opera and Operetta. London: 
Bloomsbury Publishing, Ltd., 1989. 

Grout. Donald Jay. A History of Western Music, Shorter Version. New York: W. W. 
Norton and Company, Inc., 1964. 

Newman, Ernest. Stories of the Great Operas and Their Composers. New York: Barnes 
and Noble Books, 1996. 



DISCOGRAPHY 

Giuseppe Verdi Overtures and Preludes, Riccardo Muti, Orchestra Filarmonica della 
Scala. New York: Sony Music Entertainment Inc.: 1995. 

Masters of the Opera, 1832-1843, Volume 5. Santa Monica, California: Delta Music, 
Inc.: 1993. 



INTERESTING INTERNET SITES 

www . giuseppe verdi . org (information on "The Year of Verdi" world-wide celebration) 
www.r-ds.com/verdiana.htm (historical photographs, biographical information) 
www.ipl.org/exhibit/mushist/rom/verdi/htm (extensive music history site) 



Jo Anne Yates Swartz received her Bachelor of Music degree from Appalachian State 
University. She also earned her M.A. in music education and supervision from 
Appalachian. Jo Anne teaches general music and A.I.G. classes to K-5 students at 
Eastlawn Elementary School in Burlington. She enjoys writing Celtic-style hymn 
arrangements for piano and working as interim choir director/organist at Mebane United 
Methodist Church. She and her husband have two wonderful sons (an ECU sophomore 
and an eighth grader). 

Fine arts educator Michele Nelson produced the beautiful artwork for this portion. 
Michele received her Bachelor of Fine Arts degree from the University of North Carolina 
at Greensboro. She presently teaches art classes at the elementary and high school levels 
for Alamance-Burlington Schools. A highlight of this teaching year for Michele has been 
implementing digital photography and technology into her art classes with equipment her 
program received through two grants she has written. 



54 







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Verdi f s Nabucco Word Search 



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58 



Variations on "America" 

Composed in 1891 
Charles Ives (1874-1954) 

Classroom Activities by Jennifer J. Starkey 



CHARLES IVES - BIOGRAPHY 

Charles Ives (1874-1954) was born and raised in Danbury, Connecticut. His first introduction to 
music came from his father, George Ives. George Ives was the Union's youngest bandmaster 
during the Civil War. When George Ives returned to Danbury after the war he continued on his 
musical track as a cornet player, choir director, theater orchestra leader, band director and 
teacher. He was one of the most influential musicians in that region. Ironically, Danbury prided 
itself during this time period as being "the most musical town in Connecticut" (mostly due to the 
work of George Ives), yet people still viewed professional musicians with little respect or 
understanding. 

Ives told the story of his introduction to music: his father came home one day to 
find the five-year old banging out the Ives Band's drum parts on the piano, using 
his fists. George Ives's response gave the first impetus to his son's career as a 
musical innovator. Rather than saying, as would most parents, "That's not how to 
play the piano," George observed instead, "It's all right to do that, Charles, if you 
know what you are doing," and sent the boy down the street for drum lessons. 
Charles never did stop using his fists on the piano, and was eventually notorious 
for requiring a board to play the Concord Sonata. Thus the invention of what a 
later age would call "tone clusters." (Charles Edward Ives — The Man, His Life, 
www.charlesives.org ) 

Charles Ives received training from his father on piano and other instruments. When he reached 
more advanced stages, he was turned over to more advanced piano instructors. George Ives 
hoped that his son might become a concert pianist but Charles preferred the organ. When 
Charles was only 14 years old he became the youngest paid church organist in Connecticut. 
Music was not his only pastime; he also played several sports. It was not unusual for Charles to 
play baseball all afternoon and perform on the organ in the evenings. 

Charles began composing simple songs around the age of thirteen. His first major work 
Variations on "America" was written when he was seventeen. 

Charles Ives attended Yale and studied with Horatio Parker. Parker and Ives disagreed on 
composing styles, when Charles showed him the piece Fugue in Four Keys (the keys being 
simultaneous) Parker told him not to show him any other music of that kind. Ives thought that 
any music that used only traditional harmonies was "stupid music" and that music without strong 
dissonance was "lily-livered." He did, however, eventually resign himself to traditional music 
studies and his time with Parker was well spent (though he would probably never admit it). 



59 



Charles Ives was very successful at Yale socially and musically. His grade average in his regular 
academic courses, however, was a D+. Soon after he began at Yale his father died from a stroke. 
The death of his father was very difficult for Charles and he never truly recovered from the blow. 
After he left Yale, in 1898, Ives took a position with the Mutual Insurance Company in New 
York. He also accepted the position as a church organist and still composed in his spare time. 

In 1902, Ives quit his organist position and did not work as a professional performer again. He 
continued to compose in his spare time. In 1906, he reacquainted with Harmony Twitchell, the 
sister of a classmate at Yale. The romance bloomed and they were married in 1908. It was also 
in 1906 that he started his own insurance company. 

Chronic diabetes and hand tremors forced Ives to stop composing and in 1 9 1 5 he had a heart 
attack from which he never fully recovered. 

Ives did not receive recognition for his work until the 1930's. In 1947, he won the Pulitzer Prize 
for his Third Symphony (1911). 

When Charles Ives retired from his insurance business in 1930 he was worth many millions. 
Ives died in May of 1954. 



QUOTES FROM CHARLES IVES 

♦ "My God! What has sound got to do with music." 

♦ "God must get awfully tired of hearing the same thing over and over again, and in His all- 
embracing wisdom could certainly use a dissonance - might even enjoy one now and 
again." 

♦ "Beauty in music is too often confused with something that lets the ears lie back in an 
easy chair. Many sounds that we are used to, do not bother us, and for that reason, we are 
inclined to call them beautiful." 

♦ To his copyist he wrote: "Mr. Price. Please don't try to make things nice! All the wrong 
notes are right. Just copy as I have - 1 want it that way." 

♦ "Why tonality as such should be thrown out for good, I can't see. Why it should always 
be present, I can't see." 

♦ His dedication to Essay Before a Sonata reads: "These prefatory essays were written by 
the composer for those who can't stand the music and the music for those who can't stand 
his essays; to those who can't stand either, the whole is respectfully dedicated." 

♦ He called critics "Rollos" and "lillypod academics." 

♦ His neighbors called his composition at the piano "resident disturbances." 



60 



VARIATIONS ON "AMERICA" - CALL CHART 

0:00 Introduction: Fragments of theme. Many dynamic changes. 
1:03 Main theme introduced in brass and strings ippp). 
1:48 Variation 1 : Main theme in strings with moving 

eighth notes in woodwinds (/). 
2:27 Variation 2: Theme in woodwinds (mf), new closer harmonies, 

similar to barbershop quartet. 
3:10 Interlude: Theme in woodwinds and violin (ffj). Theme is played 

as a cannon. Dissonant harmony. 
3:40 Variation 3: Meter changes to 6/8. Theme in woodwinds and strings. 

Sounds similar to a circus calliope. 
4:28 Variation 4: Back to 3/4. Melody starts in brass. Based on the dance 

style of a polonaise. 
5:12 Interlude: Brass soli (p). Dissonant harmony. 
5:27 Variation 5: Theme begins with woodwinds. Moving eighth notes 

played by solo trumpet. 



THE WORKS OF CHARLES IVES 



Year(s) Of Composition 


Age(s) When Written 


Name of Composition 


1891 


17 


Variations on "America" for 
organ 


1896 


22 


Quartet No 1, Revival Service 


1896-1898 


22-24 


Symphony No 1 in D minor 


1897-1902 


23-28 


Symphony No 2 


1898-1907 


24-33 


Calcium Light Night, chamber 

orchestra 

Central Park in the Dark, 

orchestra 


1900-1906 & 1914-1915 


26-32 & 40-41 


Children 's Day at the Camp 
Meeting, violin and piano 


1901-1904 


27-30 


Symphony No 3 


1902-1910 


28-36 


Violin Sonata No 2 


1903-1908 


29-34 


Violin Sonata No 1 


1903-1914 


29-40 


Three Places in New England, 
orchestra 


1904 


30 


Thanksgiving and/or Father 's 
Day (Part 4 of Holidays 
Symphony) 



61 



1904-1911 


30-37 


Theater Orchestra Set No 1 : 
In the Cage 
In the Inn 
In the Night 


1906 


32 


The Pond, small orchestra 


1908 


34 


The Unanswered Question, 
small orchestra 


1910-1916 


36-42 


Symphony No 4 


1911 


37 


Browning Overture 
Hallowe 'en, piano and strings 
The Gong on the Hook and 
Ladder, small orchestra 
Tone-Roads, No 1 , chamber 
orchestra 


1912 


38 


Decoration Day (Part 2 of 
Holidays Symphony) 
Lincoln, the Great Commoner, 
chorus and orchestra 


1913 


39 


Washington 's Birthday (Part 1 
of Holidays Symphony) 
Fourth of July (Part 3 of 
Holidays Symphony) 
Over the Pavements, chamber 
orchestra 


1914 


40 


Protests, piano sonata 


1915 


41 


Concord, piano sonata 
Orchestral Set No 2 
Tone-Roads, No 3, chamber 
orchestra 


1919-1927 


45-53 


Orchestral Set No 3 



Ives also composed: Eleven volumes of chamber music; The Celestial Country, for chorus; Three 
Harvest Home Chorales; General Booth 's Entrance into Heaven, with brass band and chorus; 
many psalm settings and other choral works; About 200 songs; many piano pieces 



PRIMARY LESSON 



Student Learning Objectives 



1 . The student will define theme and variations using a dictionary or glossary. 

2. The student will demonstrate a theme and variations example using the speech piece 
"Fried Ham". 

3. The student will read the song "America" and define words and/or phrases that are not 
understood. 



62 



4. The student will sing the song "America" with accurate melody and rhythm. 

5. The student will demonstrate a conducting pattern in 3. 

6. The student will read a short biography of Charles Ives. 

7. The student will listen to Charles Ives' Variations on "America " and differentiate 
through movement and/or coloring the differences between the theme and variations. 

Student Learning Activities 

Activity 1 

Using the student textbook glossary or a dictionary have students look up and define the 
vocabulary words "theme" and "variation(s)". Discuss the definitions with the students and 
show examples of musical and non-musical theme and variation in the classroom. 

Show the students "Fried Ham" (the sheet included in this book will make a nice overhead 
projector worksheet). Have students read the passage quietly to themselves. After students are 
familiar with the passage teach it to them using the rhythm pattern on the next page. 

When students are confident of the correct pattern explain to them that this is a theme. If "Fried 
Ham" is a theme, how can they create variations on it? Student answers will vary. Although 
rhythmic, word changes and tempo variations are appropriate answers steer them toward 
something a little less complicated such as dynamic changes or changing the sound of their 
voice. Have the children think of characters or accents they could use to vary "Fried Ham". 
Some examples could be: old man/woman, football player, cheerleader, southern accent, or 
English accent. Dynamic changes could be forte and piano or a crescendo and decrescendo. 

Have the students perform "Fried Ham" as a theme with three or four chosen variations. 

Activity 2 

Review theme and variations. Explain to students that they will soon be listening to a musical 
example of theme and variations and that the theme in this piece is the song "America". Have 
the students turn to "America" in their North Carolina Symphony Booklet. Students should take 
turns reading the verses aloud to the class. The teacher should make a list on the board of any 
vocabulary words that the students do not understand. Students may then use a dictionary to 
define these words and share their findings with the class. Take time to discuss the meaning of 
each phrase in the song to give the students a full understanding of the songs entire meaning. 
Students should then sing the song. Be sure to review correct singing posture, breathing, and 
correct any rhythmic or pitch problems accordingly. 

After students are familiar with the song ask them to look at the time signature. They should 
note that it is in 3 / 4 time. Explain the meaning of 3 A and ask the students to sing (or just listen) to 
the song again while following in a pattern of three (pat knees, clap hands, snap fingers). Assign 
students in groups to make up their own patterns of three and share them with the class for a 
verse of the song. 



63 



Teach students the correct conducting pattern for a song in 3 A. Volunteers may come to the front 
of the classroom and direct students in singing the song "America". 

If you can, also include a brief lesson on conducting in 2 as one of the variations in the piece is in 
6/8. 

Activity 3 

Review theme and variations and the song "America". Have students read the biography of 
Charles Ives in their North Carolina Symphony booklet to themselves or take turns reading aloud 
to the class. 

Use the call chart to both prepare students for the recording and to narrate during the listening 
activity. Play Ives' Variations on "America'" for the class. After the first listening instruct 
students to listen to the piece again, this time conducting in three every time they hear the theme 
clearly. (Rather than just conduct with their hands it is great if you can give each child one of 
those mini U.S. flags or include making a flag with paper and a Popsicle stick as part of the 
lesson). 

Students should follow your lead on the 6/8 section to conduct in two. 



THINKING MAP ACTIVITIES 

Thinking maps are a visual, graphic way for students to organize information. In the following 
paragraphs I will give you ideas and explanations for the use of the maps but I have left the 
worksheets completely blank for you to decide how to best utilize them for your students. 



The Circle Map and Frame: The circle map is a tool for students to brainstorm or research 
information about a particular subject. My recommendation for this map is the life of Charles 
Ives. In the center of the map students fill in the subject of their study, in this example, Charles 
Ives' name would be placed in that space. In the outer circle students write information about 
the subject. For example, his birthplace, songs composed, family, etc. In the outer frame 
students fill in the sources of this information such as North Carolina Symphony Booklet, 
Teacher, TV, Encyclopedia, or Music Textbook. 

The Bubble Map: The bubble map provides a framework for students to describe a subject. For 
this map I recommend either the entire song Variations on "America " or just one of the 
variations in the piece. The subject is written in the center and the outside circles are filled with 
single adjectives describing the subject. You may specify musical vocabulary or just let the 
children use their own words. 

The Double Bubble Map: The double bubble map gives children an opportunity to work on 
skills that allow them to compare and contrast two subjects. This map can be used to compare 
and contrast two of the variations of Variations on "America " or to compare and contrast the 



64 



theme and a chosen variation or all variations. The chosen subject should be written in the center 
circle on each side. The three circles between the two bubble maps represent the similarities 
between the two subjects. The circles on the outside represent the differences. 



ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES 

Composition: On piano, electronic keyboards or other instruments have students create their 
own variations on "America". 

Social Studies: Using an encyclopedia, other reference books or the internet students can make a 
time line of significant events, births, and deaths that occurred during the lifetime of Charles 
Ives. 

Map Reading Skills: Students find Danbury, Connecticut on a US map. Using the mileage 
scale students can map the mileage from their hometown to Danbury and decide on the best route 
to get there. 

Charles Ives is going on a concert tour. Give students cities where his concerts will be held and 
have them map our their travel route and estimated time to arrive at each destination. 

Math: Using the list of Charles Ives' works in this booklet, leave some of the year or age 
categories blank. Using the date of his birth and either an age or year students can calculate the 
missing number. 

Technology: Using a composition program students can write and print their own variations on 
"America". 

Using the Internet students can search for websites with information on Charles Ives. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Guilder, Eric. Dictionary of Composers and Their Music . New York/New Jersey: Wings 
Books, 1993. 

Stolba, Marie K. The Development of Western Music . Dubuque: Brown & Benchmark, 1994. 

Stanton, Barbara; Lawrence, Vincent; Jothen, Michael; Knorr, Jeanne. Music And You: 
Teachers Edition Grade 8 . New York: McMillian Publishing Company, 1991. 



65 



INTERNET RESOURCES 

www . ec.emow.edu/MUSIC/ARNOLD/ives content.html 

wwv> .loudounsvmphonv.org/notes/ives-america.html 

www.charlesives.org/l_life.htm 

hup: m237.arc.leon.kl2.flus/~stanlem/ives. html 



Jennifer Starkev teaches Pre-K through 5 general music at Robbins Elementary School in 
Robbins, NC. In addition to her teaching she directs the Robbins Elementary Chorus and Show 
Choir. Ms. Starkey received her Bachelor Degree from the University of South Florida in 1997. 

Special thanks to Mrs. Lorri Eckman for her assistance with Finale. 



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21 






J EItIv h ll/.TS 



IW 



OR C K SlSlTlK 



America 



Words by 
Samuel F. Smith 



Music attributed to 
Henry Carey 



Gm 



C7 



Bi> 



2 



i 



* 



l.My 


coun 


- try, 


'tis 


of thee, 


Sweet 


land 


of 


lib 


er - ty, 


2. My 


na - 


tive 


coun 


try thee, 


Land 


of 


the 


no 


ble free 



Bb 



C7 



r r r i r m 



Of 


thee 


I 


sing; 


Land where 


my 


fa - 


thers died, 


Land of 


the 


Thy 


name 


I 


love; 


I love 


thy 


rocks 


and rills, 


Thy woods 


and 



C7 



Bt> 



F C7 



m * j i J n = ? m 



m 



P r \w 



2Z 



p.l 


- grims' pride, 


From 


ev 


'ry 


moun - 


tain - side 


Let free - 


dom 


ring. 


tern 


- pled hills; 


My 


heart 


with 


rap - 


ture thrills 


Like_ that 


a - 


bove 



77 



Introduction 
5 



' Va pensiero' from Nabucco 

Chorus of the Hebrew Slaves 
Cantabile 



Giuseppe Verdi 



rts 



p sotto voce 



W EE ^ 



S 



3m 



i 



P 



G.P. 



Wings of gold take my thoughts filled with 



mm 



m m a 



w^$ 



mm 



long - ing, 



Far a - way to my home a - mong the moun - tains. 



Where the 



? 



E=^ 



mm 



mm 



soft winds and clear crys - tal foun - tains Sing the song of my own na - tive 



^^ 



fj- I J 



n 



*^s 



~ZH 



land. 



*=["=* 



In my dreams I live there_ for - ev - er, 



And a - 



m 



* 



»i 



-&' 



round me my lov'd ones are smil - ing. Oh, my home - land so love - ly and 




orchestral interlude 

lost_ to me, Shall I nev - er - more_ see my na - tive land? Let our 



i 



p 



2 



1 f * 



f^i 



3 



song rise to thee oh dear Lord- a-bove. Hear the voice of — thy peo - ple_ at 



i 



¥ 



^My- 



= 



m * 



■5 



f 



s - 



m 



TtVp 



^H^F 



J J ' J. J J 



last! Hear the voice of thy peo 



ple_ at last! Hear the voice of thy 



I 



ftj 



PP S 



^=^ 



JTJTJ J> 



peo 



ple_ at last! Hear thy peo - pie at last! 



78